Vim documentation: eval

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*eval.txt*	For Vim version 7.2.  Last change: 2008 Nov 27


		  VIM REFERENCE MANUAL	  by Bram Moolenaar



Expression evaluation			*expression* *expr* *E15* *eval*

Using expressions is introduced in chapter 41 of the user manual |usr_41.txt|.

Note: Expression evaluation can be disabled at compile time.  If this has been
done, the features in this document are not available.	See |+eval| and
|no-eval-feature|.

1.  Variables			|variables|
    1.1 Variable types
    1.2 Function references		|Funcref|
    1.3 Lists				|Lists|
    1.4 Dictionaries			|Dictionaries|
    1.5 More about variables		|more-variables|
2.  Expression syntax		|expression-syntax|
3.  Internal variable		|internal-variables|
4.  Builtin Functions		|functions|
5.  Defining functions		|user-functions|
6.  Curly braces names		|curly-braces-names|
7.  Commands			|expression-commands|
8.  Exception handling		|exception-handling|
9.  Examples			|eval-examples|
10. No +eval feature		|no-eval-feature|
11. The sandbox			|eval-sandbox|
12. Textlock			|textlock|

{Vi does not have any of these commands}


1. Variables *variables* 1.1 Variable types *E712* There are six types of variables: Number A 32 bit signed number. |expr-number| *Number* Examples: -123 0x10 0177 Float A floating point number. |floating-point-format| *Float* {only when compiled with the |+float| feature} Examples: 123.456 1.15e-6 -1.1e3 String A NUL terminated string of 8-bit unsigned characters (bytes). |expr-string| Examples: "ab\txx\"--" 'x-z''a,c' Funcref A reference to a function |Funcref|. Example: function("strlen") List An ordered sequence of items |List|. Example: [1, 2, ['a', 'b']] Dictionary An associative, unordered array: Each entry has a key and a value. |Dictionary| Example: {'blue': "#0000ff", 'red': "#ff0000"} The Number and String types are converted automatically, depending on how they are used. Conversion from a Number to a String is by making the ASCII representation of the Number. Examples: Number 123 --> String "123" Number 0 --> String "0" Number -1 --> String "-1" Conversion from a String to a Number is done by converting the first digits to a number. Hexadecimal "0xf9" and Octal "017" numbers are recognized. If the String doesn't start with digits, the result is zero. Examples: String "456" --> Number 456 String "6bar" --> Number 6 String "foo" --> Number 0 String "0xf1" --> Number 241 String "0100" --> Number 64 String "-8" --> Number -8 String "+8" --> Number 0 To force conversion from String to Number, add zero to it: :echo "0100" + 0 64 To avoid a leading zero to cause octal conversion, or for using a different base, use |str2nr()|. For boolean operators Numbers are used. Zero is FALSE, non-zero is TRUE. Note that in the command :if "foo" "foo" is converted to 0, which means FALSE. To test for a non-empty string, use strlen(): :if strlen("foo") *E745* *E728* *E703* *E729* *E730* *E731* List, Dictionary and Funcref types are not automatically converted. *E805* *E806* *E808* When mixing Number and Float the Number is converted to Float. Otherwise there is no automatic conversion of Float. You can use str2float() for String to Float, printf() for Float to String and float2nr() for Float to Number. *E706* *sticky-type-checking* You will get an error if you try to change the type of a variable. You need to |:unlet| it first to avoid this error. String and Number are considered equivalent though, as well are Float and Number. Consider this sequence of commands: :let l = "string" :let l = 44 " changes type from String to Number :let l = [1, 2, 3] " error! l is still a Number :let l = 4.4 " changes type from Number to Float :let l = "string" " error! 1.2 Function references *Funcref* *E695* *E718* A Funcref variable is obtained with the |function()| function. It can be used in an expression in the place of a function name, before the parenthesis around the arguments, to invoke the function it refers to. Example: :let Fn = function("MyFunc") :echo Fn() *E704* *E705* *E707* A Funcref variable must start with a capital, "s:", "w:", "t:" or "b:". You cannot have both a Funcref variable and a function with the same name. A special case is defining a function and directly assigning its Funcref to a Dictionary entry. Example: :function dict.init() dict : let self.val = 0 :endfunction The key of the Dictionary can start with a lower case letter. The actual function name is not used here. Also see |numbered-function|. A Funcref can also be used with the |:call| command: :call Fn() :call dict.init() The name of the referenced function can be obtained with |string()|. :let func = string(Fn) You can use |call()| to invoke a Funcref and use a list variable for the arguments: :let r = call(Fn, mylist) 1.3 Lists *List* *Lists* *E686* A List is an ordered sequence of items. An item can be of any type. Items can be accessed by their index number. Items can be added and removed at any position in the sequence. List creation *E696* *E697* A List is created with a comma separated list of items in square brackets. Examples: :let mylist = [1, two, 3, "four"] :let emptylist = [] An item can be any expression. Using a List for an item creates a List of Lists: :let nestlist = [[11, 12], [21, 22], [31, 32]] An extra comma after the last item is ignored. List index *list-index* *E684* An item in the List can be accessed by putting the index in square brackets after the List. Indexes are zero-based, thus the first item has index zero. :let item = mylist[0] " get the first item: 1 :let item = mylist[2] " get the third item: 3 When the resulting item is a list this can be repeated: :let item = nestlist[0][1] " get the first list, second item: 12 A negative index is counted from the end. Index -1 refers to the last item in the List, -2 to the last but one item, etc. :let last = mylist[-1] " get the last item: "four" To avoid an error for an invalid index use the |get()| function. When an item is not available it returns zero or the default value you specify: :echo get(mylist, idx) :echo get(mylist, idx, "NONE") List concatenation Two lists can be concatenated with the "+" operator: :let longlist = mylist + [5, 6] :let mylist += [7, 8] To prepend or append an item turn the item into a list by putting [] around it. To change a list in-place see |list-modification| below. Sublist A part of the List can be obtained by specifying the first and last index, separated by a colon in square brackets: :let shortlist = mylist[2:-1] " get List [3, "four"] Omitting the first index is similar to zero. Omitting the last index is similar to -1. :let endlist = mylist[2:] " from item 2 to the end: [3, "four"] :let shortlist = mylist[2:2] " List with one item: [3] :let otherlist = mylist[:] " make a copy of the List If the first index is beyond the last item of the List or the second item is before the first item, the result is an empty list. There is no error message. If the second index is equal to or greater than the length of the list the length minus one is used: :let mylist = [0, 1, 2, 3] :echo mylist[2:8] " result: [2, 3] NOTE: mylist[s:e] means using the variable "s:e" as index. Watch out for using a single letter variable before the ":". Insert a space when needed: mylist[s : e]. List identity *list-identity* When variable "aa" is a list and you assign it to another variable "bb", both variables refer to the same list. Thus changing the list "aa" will also change "bb": :let aa = [1, 2, 3] :let bb = aa :call add(aa, 4) :echo bb [1, 2, 3, 4] Making a copy of a list is done with the |copy()| function. Using [:] also works, as explained above. This creates a shallow copy of the list: Changing a list item in the list will also change the item in the copied list: :let aa = [[1, 'a'], 2, 3] :let bb = copy(aa) :call add(aa, 4) :let aa[0][1] = 'aaa' :echo aa [[1, aaa], 2, 3, 4] :echo bb [[1, aaa], 2, 3] To make a completely independent list use |deepcopy()|. This also makes a copy of the values in the list, recursively. Up to a hundred levels deep. The operator "is" can be used to check if two variables refer to the same List. "isnot" does the opposite. In contrast "==" compares if two lists have the same value. :let alist = [1, 2, 3] :let blist = [1, 2, 3] :echo alist is blist 0 :echo alist == blist 1 Note about comparing lists: Two lists are considered equal if they have the same length and all items compare equal, as with using "==". There is one exception: When comparing a number with a string they are considered different. There is no automatic type conversion, as with using "==" on variables. Example: echo 4 == "4" 1 echo [4] == ["4"] 0 Thus comparing Lists is more strict than comparing numbers and strings. You can compare simple values this way too by putting them in a list: :let a = 5 :let b = "5" :echo a == b 1 :echo [a] == [b] 0 List unpack To unpack the items in a list to individual variables, put the variables in square brackets, like list items: :let [var1, var2] = mylist When the number of variables does not match the number of items in the list this produces an error. To handle any extra items from the list append ";" and a variable name: :let [var1, var2; rest] = mylist This works like: :let var1 = mylist[0] :let var2 = mylist[1] :let rest = mylist[2:] Except that there is no error if there are only two items. "rest" will be an empty list then. List modification *list-modification* To change a specific item of a list use |:let| this way: :let list[4] = "four" :let listlist[0][3] = item To change part of a list you can specify the first and last item to be modified. The value must at least have the number of items in the range: :let list[3:5] = [3, 4, 5] Adding and removing items from a list is done with functions. Here are a few examples: :call insert(list, 'a') " prepend item 'a' :call insert(list, 'a', 3) " insert item 'a' before list[3] :call add(list, "new") " append String item :call add(list, [1, 2]) " append a List as one new item :call extend(list, [1, 2]) " extend the list with two more items :let i = remove(list, 3) " remove item 3 :unlet list[3] " idem :let l = remove(list, 3, -1) " remove items 3 to last item :unlet list[3 : ] " idem :call filter(list, 'v:val !~ "x"') " remove items with an 'x' Changing the order of items in a list: :call sort(list) " sort a list alphabetically :call reverse(list) " reverse the order of items For loop The |:for| loop executes commands for each item in a list. A variable is set to each item in the list in sequence. Example: :for item in mylist : call Doit(item) :endfor This works like: :let index = 0 :while index < len(mylist) : let item = mylist[index] : :call Doit(item) : let index = index + 1 :endwhile Note that all items in the list should be of the same type, otherwise this results in error |E706|. To avoid this |:unlet| the variable at the end of the loop. If all you want to do is modify each item in the list then the |map()| function will be a simpler method than a for loop. Just like the |:let| command, |:for| also accepts a list of variables. This requires the argument to be a list of lists. :for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 8], [3, 0]] : call Doit(lnum, col) :endfor This works like a |:let| command is done for each list item. Again, the types must remain the same to avoid an error. It is also possible to put remaining items in a List variable: :for [i, j; rest] in listlist : call Doit(i, j) : if !empty(rest) : echo "remainder: " . string(rest) : endif :endfor List functions *E714* Functions that are useful with a List: :let r = call(funcname, list) " call a function with an argument list :if empty(list) " check if list is empty :let l = len(list) " number of items in list :let big = max(list) " maximum value in list :let small = min(list) " minimum value in list :let xs = count(list, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in list :let i = index(list, 'x') " index of first 'x' in list :let lines = getline(1, 10) " get ten text lines from buffer :call append('$', lines) " append text lines in buffer :let list = split("a b c") " create list from items in a string :let string = join(list, ', ') " create string from list items :let s = string(list) " String representation of list :call map(list, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item Don't forget that a combination of features can make things simple. For example, to add up all the numbers in a list: :exe 'let sum = ' . join(nrlist, '+') 1.4 Dictionaries *Dictionaries* *Dictionary* A Dictionary is an associative array: Each entry has a key and a value. The entry can be located with the key. The entries are stored without a specific ordering. Dictionary creation *E720* *E721* *E722* *E723* A Dictionary is created with a comma separated list of entries in curly braces. Each entry has a key and a value, separated by a colon. Each key can only appear once. Examples: :let mydict = {1: 'one', 2: 'two', 3: 'three'} :let emptydict = {} *E713* *E716* *E717* A key is always a String. You can use a Number, it will be converted to a String automatically. Thus the String '4' and the number 4 will find the same entry. Note that the String '04' and the Number 04 are different, since the Number will be converted to the String '4'. A value can be any expression. Using a Dictionary for a value creates a nested Dictionary: :let nestdict = {1: {11: 'a', 12: 'b'}, 2: {21: 'c'}} An extra comma after the last entry is ignored. Accessing entries The normal way to access an entry is by putting the key in square brackets: :let val = mydict["one"] :let mydict["four"] = 4 You can add new entries to an existing Dictionary this way, unlike Lists. For keys that consist entirely of letters, digits and underscore the following form can be used YXXYexpr-entry|: :let val = mydict.one :let mydict.four = 4 Since an entry can be any type, also a List and a Dictionary, the indexing and key lookup can be repeated: :echo dict.key[idx].key Dictionary to List conversion You may want to loop over the entries in a dictionary. For this you need to turn the Dictionary into a List and pass it to |:for|. Most often you want to loop over the keys, using the |keys()| function: :for key in keys(mydict) : echo key . ': ' . mydict[key] :endfor The List of keys is unsorted. You may want to sort them first: :for key in sort(keys(mydict)) To loop over the values use the |values()| function: :for v in values(mydict) : echo "value: " . v :endfor If you want both the key and the value use the |items()| function. It returns a List in which each item is a List with two items, the key and the value: :for [key, value] in items(mydict) : echo key . ': ' . value :endfor Dictionary identity *dict-identity* Just like Lists you need to use |copy()| and |deepcopy()| to make a copy of a Dictionary. Otherwise, assignment results in referring to the same Dictionary: :let onedict = {'a': 1, 'b': 2} :let adict = onedict :let adict['a'] = 11 :echo onedict['a'] 11 Two Dictionaries compare equal if all the key-value pairs compare equal. For more info see |list-identity|. Dictionary modification *dict-modification* To change an already existing entry of a Dictionary, or to add a new entry, use |:let| this way: :let dict[4] = "four" :let dict['one'] = item Removing an entry from a Dictionary is done with |remove()| or |:unlet|. Three ways to remove the entry with key "aaa" from dict: :let i = remove(dict, 'aaa') :unlet dict.aaa :unlet dict['aaa'] Merging a Dictionary with another is done with YXXYextend()|: :call extend(adict, bdict) This extends adict with all entries from bdict. Duplicate keys cause entries in adict to be overwritten. An optional third argument can change this. Note that the order of entries in a Dictionary is irrelevant, thus don't expect ":echo adict" to show the items from bdict after the older entries in adict. Weeding out entries from a Dictionary can be done with YXXYfilter()|: :call filter(dict, 'v:val =~ "x"') This removes all entries from "dict" with a value not matching 'x'. Dictionary function *Dictionary-function* *self* *E725* When a function is defined with the "dict" attribute it can be used in a special way with a dictionary. Example: :function Mylen() dict : return len(self.data) :endfunction :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3], 'len': function("Mylen")} :echo mydict.len() This is like a method in object oriented programming. The entry in the Dictionary is a |Funcref|. The local variable "self" refers to the dictionary the function was invoked from. It is also possible to add a function without the "dict" attribute as a Funcref to a Dictionary, but the "self" variable is not available then. *numbered-function* *anonymous-function* To avoid the extra name for the function it can be defined and directly assigned to a Dictionary in this way: :let mydict = {'data': [0, 1, 2, 3]} :function mydict.len() dict : return len(self.data) :endfunction :echo mydict.len() The function will then get a number and the value of dict.len is a |Funcref| that references this function. The function can only be used through a |Funcref|. It will automatically be deleted when there is no |Funcref| remaining that refers to it. It is not necessary to use the "dict" attribute for a numbered function. Functions for Dictionaries *E715* Functions that can be used with a Dictionary: :if has_key(dict, 'foo') " TRUE if dict has entry with key "foo" :if empty(dict) " TRUE if dict is empty :let l = len(dict) " number of items in dict :let big = max(dict) " maximum value in dict :let small = min(dict) " minimum value in dict :let xs = count(dict, 'x') " count nr of times 'x' appears in dict :let s = string(dict) " String representation of dict :call map(dict, '">> " . v:val') " prepend ">> " to each item 1.5 More about variables *more-variables* If you need to know the type of a variable or expression, use the |type()| function. When the '!' flag is included in the 'viminfo' option, global variables that start with an uppercase letter, and don't contain a lowercase letter, are stored in the viminfo file |viminfo-file|. When the 'sessionoptions' option contains "global", global variables that start with an uppercase letter and contain at least one lowercase letter are stored in the session file |session-file|. variable name can be stored where my_var_6 not My_Var_6 session file MY_VAR_6 viminfo file It's possible to form a variable name with curly braces, see |curly-braces-names|.
2. Expression syntax *expression-syntax* Expression syntax summary, from least to most significant: |expr1| expr2 ? expr1 : expr1 if-then-else |expr2| expr3 || expr3 .. logical OR |expr3| expr4 && expr4 .. logical AND |expr4| expr5 == expr5 equal expr5 != expr5 not equal expr5 > expr5 greater than expr5 >= expr5 greater than or equal expr5 < expr5 smaller than expr5 <= expr5 smaller than or equal expr5 =~ expr5 regexp matches expr5 !~ expr5 regexp doesn't match expr5 ==? expr5 equal, ignoring case expr5 ==# expr5 equal, match case etc. As above, append ? for ignoring case, # for matching case expr5 is expr5 same |List| instance expr5 isnot expr5 different |List| instance |expr5| expr6 + expr6 .. number addition or list concatenation expr6 - expr6 .. number subtraction expr6 . expr6 .. string concatenation |expr6| expr7 * expr7 .. number multiplication expr7 / expr7 .. number division expr7 % expr7 .. number modulo |expr7| ! expr7 logical NOT - expr7 unary minus + expr7 unary plus |expr8| expr8[expr1] byte of a String or item of a |List| expr8[expr1 : expr1] substring of a String or sublist of a |List| expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary| expr8(expr1, ...) function call with |Funcref| variable |expr9| number number constant "string" string constant, backslash is special 'string' string constant, '' is doubled [expr1, ...] |List| {expr1: expr1, ...} |Dictionary| &option option value (expr1) nested expression variable internal variable va{ria}ble internal variable with curly braces $VAR environment variable @r contents of register 'r' function(expr1, ...) function call func{ti}on(expr1, ...) function call with curly braces ".." indicates that the operations in this level can be concatenated. Example: &nu || &list && &shell == "csh" All expressions within one level are parsed from left to right. expr1 *expr1* *E109* expr2 ? expr1 : expr1 The expression before the '?' is evaluated to a number. If it evaluates to non-zero, the result is the value of the expression between the '?' and ':', otherwise the result is the value of the expression after the ':'. Example: :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum Since the first expression is an "expr2", it cannot contain another ?:. The other two expressions can, thus allow for recursive use of ?:. Example: :echo lnum == 1 ? "top" : lnum == 1000 ? "last" : lnum To keep this readable, using |line-continuation| is suggested: :echo lnum == 1 :\ ? "top" :\ : lnum == 1000 :\ ? "last" :\ : lnum You should always put a space before the ':', otherwise it can be mistaken for use in a variable such as "a:1". expr2 and expr3 *expr2* *expr3* *expr-barbar* *expr-&&* The "||" and "&&" operators take one argument on each side. The arguments are (converted to) Numbers. The result is: input output n1 n2 n1 || n2 n1 && n2 zero zero zero zero zero non-zero non-zero zero non-zero zero non-zero zero non-zero non-zero non-zero non-zero The operators can be concatenated, for example: &nu || &list && &shell == "csh" Note that "&&" takes precedence over "||", so this has the meaning of: &nu || (&list && &shell == "csh") Once the result is known, the expression "short-circuits", that is, further arguments are not evaluated. This is like what happens in C. For example: let a = 1 echo a || b This is valid even if there is no variable called "b" because "a" is non-zero, so the result must be non-zero. Similarly below: echo exists("b") && b == "yes" This is valid whether "b" has been defined or not. The second clause will only be evaluated if "b" has been defined. expr4 *expr4* expr5 {cmp} expr5 Compare two expr5 expressions, resulting in a 0 if it evaluates to false, or 1 if it evaluates to true. *expr-==* *expr-!=* *expr->* *expr->=* *expr-<* *expr-<=* *expr-=~* *expr-!~* *expr-==#* *expr-!=#* *expr->#* *expr->=#* *expr-<#* *expr-<=#* *expr-=~#* *expr-!~#* *expr-==?* *expr-!=?* *expr->?* *expr->=?* *expr-<?* *expr-<=?* *expr-=~?* *expr-!~?* *expr-is* use 'ignorecase' match case ignore case equal == ==# ==? not equal != !=# !=? greater than > ># >? greater than or equal >= >=# >=? smaller than < <# <? smaller than or equal <= <=# <=? regexp matches =~ =~# =~? regexp doesn't match !~ !~# !~? same instance is different instance isnot Examples: "abc" ==# "Abc" evaluates to 0 "abc" ==? "Abc" evaluates to 1 "abc" == "Abc" evaluates to 1 if 'ignorecase' is set, 0 otherwise *E691* *E692* A |List| can only be compared with a |List| and only "equal", "not equal" and "is" can be used. This compares the values of the list, recursively. Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values. *E735* *E736* A |Dictionary| can only be compared with a |Dictionary| and only "equal", "not equal" and "is" can be used. This compares the key/values of the |Dictionary| recursively. Ignoring case means case is ignored when comparing item values. *E693* *E694* A |Funcref| can only be compared with a |Funcref| and only "equal" and "not equal" can be used. Case is never ignored. When using "is" or "isnot" with a |List| this checks if the expressions are referring to the same |List| instance. A copy of a |List| is different from the original |List|. When using "is" without a |List| it is equivalent to using "equal", using "isnot" equivalent to using "not equal". Except that a different type means the values are different. "4 == '4'"' is true, "4 is '4'"' is false. When comparing a String with a Number, the String is converted to a Number, and the comparison is done on Numbers. This means that "0 == 'x'"' is TRUE, because 'x' converted to a Number is zero. When comparing two Strings, this is done with strcmp() or stricmp(). This results in the mathematical difference (comparing byte values), not necessarily the alphabetical difference in the local language. When using the operators with a trailing '#', or the short version and 'ignorecase' is off, the comparing is done with strcmp(): case matters. When using the operators with a trailing '?', or the short version and 'ignorecase' is set, the comparing is done with stricmp(): case is ignored. 'smartcase' is not used. The "=~" and "!~" operators match the lefthand argument with the righthand argument, which is used as a pattern. See |pattern| for what a pattern is. This matching is always done like 'magic' was set and 'cpoptions' is empty, no matter what the actual value of 'magic' or 'cpoptions' is. This makes scripts portable. To avoid backslashes in the regexp pattern to be doubled, use a single-quote string, see |literal-string|. Since a string is considered to be a single line, a multi-line pattern (containing \n, backslash-n) will not match. However, a literal NL character can be matched like an ordinary character. Examples: "foo\nbar" =~ "\n" evaluates to 1 "foo\nbar" =~ "\\n" evaluates to 0 expr5 and expr6 *expr5* *expr6* expr6 + expr6 .. Number addition or |List| concatenation *expr-+* expr6 - expr6 .. Number subtraction *expr--* expr6 . expr6 .. String concatenation *expr-.* For |Lists| only "+" is possible and then both expr6 must be a list. The result is a new list with the two lists Concatenated. expr7 * expr7 .. number multiplication *expr-star* expr7 / expr7 .. number division *expr-/* expr7 % expr7 .. number modulo *expr-%* For all, except ".", Strings are converted to Numbers. Note the difference between "+" and ".": "123" + "456" = 579 "123" . "456" = "123456" Since '.' has the same precedence as '+' and '-', you need to read: 1 . 90 + 90.0 As: (1 . 90) + 90.0 That works, since the String "190" is automatically converted to the Number 190, which can be added to the Float 90.0. However: 1 . 90 * 90.0 Should be read as: 1 . (90 * 90.0) Since '.' has lower precedence than '*'. This does NOT work, since this attempts to concatenate a Float and a String. When dividing a Number by zero the result depends on the value: 0 / 0 = -0x80000000 (like NaN for Float) >0 / 0 = 0x7fffffff (like positive infinity) <0 / 0 = -0x7fffffff (like negative infinity) (before Vim 7.2 it was always 0x7fffffff) When the righthand side of '%' is zero, the result is 0. None of these work for |Funcref|s. . and % do not work for Float. *E804* expr7 *expr7* ! expr7 logical NOT *expr-!* - expr7 unary minus *expr-unary--* + expr7 unary plus *expr-unary-+* For '!' non-zero becomes zero, zero becomes one. For '-' the sign of the number is changed. For '+' the number is unchanged. A String will be converted to a Number first. These three can be repeated and mixed. Examples: !-1 == 0 !!8 == 1 --9 == 9 expr8 *expr8* expr8[expr1] item of String or |List| *expr-[]* *E111* If expr8 is a Number or String this results in a String that contains the expr1'th single byte from expr8. expr8 is used as a String, expr1 as a Number. Note that this doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings. Index zero gives the first character. This is like it works in C. Careful: text column numbers start with one! Example, to get the character under the cursor: :let c = getline(".")[col(".") - 1] If the length of the String is less than the index, the result is an empty String. A negative index always results in an empty string (reason: backwards compatibility). Use [-1:] to get the last byte. If expr8 is a |List| then it results the item at index expr1. See |list-index| for possible index values. If the index is out of range this results in an error. Example: :let item = mylist[-1] " get last item Generally, if a |List| index is equal to or higher than the length of the |List|, or more negative than the length of the |List|, this results in an error. expr8[expr1a : expr1b] substring or sublist *expr-[:]* If expr8 is a Number or String this results in the substring with the bytes from expr1a to and including expr1b. expr8 is used as a String, expr1a and expr1b are used as a Number. Note that this doesn't recognize multi-byte encodings. If expr1a is omitted zero is used. If expr1b is omitted the length of the string minus one is used. A negative number can be used to measure from the end of the string. -1 is the last character, -2 the last but one, etc. If an index goes out of range for the string characters are omitted. If expr1b is smaller than expr1a the result is an empty string. Examples: :let c = name[-1:] " last byte of a string :let c = name[-2:-2] " last but one byte of a string :let s = line(".")[4:] " from the fifth byte to the end :let s = s[:-3] " remove last two bytes If expr8 is a |List| this results in a new |List| with the items indicated by the indexes expr1a and expr1b. This works like with a String, as explained just above, except that indexes out of range cause an error. Examples: :let l = mylist[:3] " first four items :let l = mylist[4:4] " List with one item :let l = mylist[:] " shallow copy of a List Using expr8[expr1] or expr8[expr1a : expr1b] on a |Funcref| results in an error. expr8.name entry in a |Dictionary| *expr-entry* If expr8 is a |Dictionary| and it is followed by a dot, then the following name will be used as a key in the |Dictionary|. This is just like: expr8[name]. The name must consist of alphanumeric characters, just like a variable name, but it may start with a number. Curly braces cannot be used. There must not be white space before or after the dot. Examples: :let dict = {"one": 1, 2: "two"} :echo dict.one :echo dict .2 Note that the dot is also used for String concatenation. To avoid confusion always put spaces around the dot for String concatenation. expr8(expr1, ...) |Funcref| function call When expr8 is a |Funcref| type variable, invoke the function it refers to. *expr9* number number number constant *expr-number* Decimal, Hexadecimal (starting with 0x or 0X), or Octal (starting with 0). *floating-point-format* Floating point numbers can be written in two forms: [-+]{N}.{M} [-+]{N}.{M}e[-+]{exp} {N} and {M} are numbers. Both {N} and {M} must be present and can only contain digits. [-+] means there is an optional plus or minus sign. {exp} is the exponent, power of 10. Only a decimal point is accepted, not a comma. No matter what the current locale is. {only when compiled with the |+float| feature} Examples: 123.456 +0.0001 55.0 -0.123 1.234e03 1.0E-6 -3.1416e+88 These are INVALID: 3. empty {M} 1e40 missing .{M} *float-pi* *float-e* A few useful values to copy&paste: :let pi = 3.14159265359 :let e = 2.71828182846 Rationale: Before floating point was introduced, the text "123.456" was interpreted as the two numbers "123" and "456", both converted to a string and concatenated, resulting in the string "123456". Since this was considered pointless, and we could not find it intentionally being used in Vim scripts, this backwards incompatibility was accepted in favor of being able to use the normal notation for floating point numbers. *floating-point-precision* The precision and range of floating points numbers depends on what "double" means in the library Vim was compiled with. There is no way to change this at runtime. The default for displaying a |Float| is to use 6 decimal places, like using printf("%g", ff). You can select something else when using the |printf()| function. Example: :echo printf('%.15e', atan(1)) 7.853981633974483e-01 string *expr-string* *E114* "string" string constant *expr-quote* Note that double quotes are used. A string constant accepts these special characters: \... three-digit octal number (e.g., "\316") \.. two-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit) \. one-digit octal number (must be followed by non-digit) \x.. byte specified with two hex numbers (e.g., "\x1f") \x. byte specified with one hex number (must be followed by non-hex char) \X.. same as \x.. \X. same as \x. \u.... character specified with up to 4 hex numbers, stored according to the current value of 'encoding' (e.g., "\u02a4") \U.... same as \u.... \b backspace <BS> \e escape <Esc> \f formfeed <FF> \n newline <NL> \r return <CR> \t tab <Tab> \\ backslash \" double quote \<xxx> Special key named "xxx". e.g. "\<C-W>" for CTRL-W. Note that "\xff" is stored as the byte 255, which may be invalid in some encodings. Use "\u00ff" to store character 255 according to the current value of 'encoding'. Note that "\000" and "\x00" force the end of the string. literal-string *literal-string* *E115* 'string' string constant *expr-'* Note that single quotes are used. This string is taken as it is. No backslashes are removed or have a special meaning. The only exception is that two quotes stand for one quote. Single quoted strings are useful for patterns, so that backslashes do not need to be doubled. These two commands are equivalent: if a =~ "\\s*" if a =~ '\s*' option *expr-option* *E112* *E113* &option option value, local value if possible &g:option global option value &l:option local option value Examples: echo "tabstop is " . &tabstop if &insertmode Any option name can be used here. See |options|. When using the local value and there is no buffer-local or window-local value, the global value is used anyway. register *expr-register* *@r* @r contents of register 'r' The result is the contents of the named register, as a single string. Newlines are inserted where required. To get the contents of the unnamed register use @" or @@. See |registers| for an explanation of the available registers. When using the '=' register you get the expression itself, not what it evaluates to. Use |eval()| to evaluate it. nesting *expr-nesting* *E110* (expr1) nested expression environment variable *expr-env* $VAR environment variable The String value of any environment variable. When it is not defined, the result is an empty string. *expr-env-expand* Note that there is a difference between using $VAR directly and using expand("$VAR"). Using it directly will only expand environment variables that are known inside the current Vim session. Using expand() will first try using the environment variables known inside the current Vim session. If that fails, a shell will be used to expand the variable. This can be slow, but it does expand all variables that the shell knows about. Example: :echo $version :echo expand("$version") The first one probably doesn't echo anything, the second echoes the $version variable (if your shell supports it). internal variable *expr-variable* variable internal variable See below |internal-variables|. function call *expr-function* *E116* *E118* *E119* *E120* function(expr1, ...) function call See below |functions|.
3. Internal variable *internal-variables* *E121* *E461* An internal variable name can be made up of letters, digits and '_'. But it cannot start with a digit. It's also possible to use curly braces, see |curly-braces-names|. An internal variable is created with the ":let" command |:let|. An internal variable is explicitly destroyed with the ":unlet" command |:unlet|. Using a name that is not an internal variable or refers to a variable that has been destroyed results in an error. There are several name spaces for variables. Which one is to be used is specified by what is prepended: (nothing) In a function: local to a function; otherwise: global |buffer-variable| b: Local to the current buffer. |window-variable| w: Local to the current window. |tabpage-variable| t: Local to the current tab page. |global-variable| g: Global. |local-variable| l: Local to a function. |script-variable| s: Local to a |:source|'ed Vim script. |function-argument| a: Function argument (only inside a function). |vim-variable| v: Global, predefined by Vim. The scope name by itself can be used as a |Dictionary|. For example, to delete all script-local variables: :for k in keys(s:) : unlet s:[k] :endfor *buffer-variable* *b:var* A variable name that is preceded with "b:" is local to the current buffer. Thus you can have several "b:foo" variables, one for each buffer. This kind of variable is deleted when the buffer is wiped out or deleted with |:bdelete|. One local buffer variable is predefined: *b:changedtick-variable* *changetick* b:changedtick The total number of changes to the current buffer. It is incremented for each change. An undo command is also a change in this case. This can be used to perform an action only when the buffer has changed. Example: :if my_changedtick != b:changedtick : let my_changedtick = b:changedtick : call My_Update() :endif *window-variable* *w:var* A variable name that is preceded with "w:" is local to the current window. It is deleted when the window is closed. *tabpage-variable* *t:var* A variable name that is preceded with "t:" is local to the current tab page, It is deleted when the tab page is closed. {not available when compiled without the +windows feature} *global-variable* *g:var* Inside functions global variables are accessed with "g:". Omitting this will access a variable local to a function. But "g:" can also be used in any other place if you like. *local-variable* *l:var* Inside functions local variables are accessed without prepending anything. But you can also prepend "l:" if you like. However, without prepending "l:" you may run into reserved variable names. For example "count". By itself it refers to "v:count". Using "l:count" you can have a local variable with the same name. *script-variable* *s:var* In a Vim script variables starting with "s:" can be used. They cannot be accessed from outside of the scripts, thus are local to the script. They can be used in: - commands executed while the script is sourced - functions defined in the script - autocommands defined in the script - functions and autocommands defined in functions and autocommands which were defined in the script (recursively) - user defined commands defined in the script Thus not in: - other scripts sourced from this one - mappings - etc. Script variables can be used to avoid conflicts with global variable names. Take this example: let s:counter = 0 function MyCounter() let s:counter = s:counter + 1 echo s:counter endfunction command Tick call MyCounter() You can now invoke "Tick" from any script, and the "s:counter" variable in that script will not be changed, only the "s:counter" in the script where "Tick" was defined is used. Another example that does the same: let s:counter = 0 command Tick let s:counter = s:counter + 1 | echo s:counter When calling a function and invoking a user-defined command, the context for script variables is set to the script where the function or command was defined. The script variables are also available when a function is defined inside a function that is defined in a script. Example: let s:counter = 0 function StartCounting(incr) if a:incr function MyCounter() let s:counter = s:counter + 1 endfunction else function MyCounter() let s:counter = s:counter - 1 endfunction endif endfunction This defines the MyCounter() function either for counting up or counting down when calling StartCounting(). It doesn't matter from where StartCounting() is called, the s:counter variable will be accessible in MyCounter(). When the same script is sourced again it will use the same script variables. They will remain valid as long as Vim is running. This can be used to maintain a counter: if !exists("s:counter") let s:counter = 1 echo "script executed for the first time" else let s:counter = s:counter + 1 echo "script executed " . s:counter . " times now" endif Note that this means that filetype plugins don't get a different set of script variables for each buffer. Use local buffer variables instead |b:var|. Predefined Vim variables: *vim-variable* *v:var* *v:beval_col* *beval_col-variable* v:beval_col The number of the column, over which the mouse pointer is. This is the byte index in the |v:beval_lnum| line. Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. *v:beval_bufnr* *beval_bufnr-variable* v:beval_bufnr The number of the buffer, over which the mouse pointer is. Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. *v:beval_lnum* *beval_lnum-variable* v:beval_lnum The number of the line, over which the mouse pointer is. Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. *v:beval_text* *beval_text-variable* v:beval_text The text under or after the mouse pointer. Usually a word as it is useful for debugging a C program. 'iskeyword' applies, but a dot and "->" before the position is included. When on a ']' the text before it is used, including the matching '[' and word before it. When on a Visual area within one line the highlighted text is used. Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. *v:beval_winnr* *beval_winnr-variable* v:beval_winnr The number of the window, over which the mouse pointer is. Only valid while evaluating the 'balloonexpr' option. *v:char* *char-variable* v:char Argument for evaluating 'formatexpr'. *v:charconvert_from* *charconvert_from-variable* v:charconvert_from The name of the character encoding of a file to be converted. Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option. *v:charconvert_to* *charconvert_to-variable* v:charconvert_to The name of the character encoding of a file after conversion. Only valid while evaluating the 'charconvert' option. *v:cmdarg* *cmdarg-variable* v:cmdarg This variable is used for two purposes: 1. The extra arguments given to a file read/write command. Currently these are "++enc=" and "++ff=". This variable is set before an autocommand event for a file read/write command is triggered. There is a leading space to make it possible to append this variable directly after the read/write command. Note: The "+cmd" argument isn't included here, because it will be executed anyway. 2. When printing a PostScript file with ":hardcopy" this is the argument for the ":hardcopy" command. This can be used in 'printexpr'. *v:cmdbang* *cmdbang-variable* v:cmdbang Set like v:cmdarg for a file read/write command. When a "!" was used the value is 1, otherwise it is 0. Note that this can only be used in autocommands. For user commands |<bang>| can be used. *v:count* *count-variable* v:count The count given for the last Normal mode command. Can be used to get the count before a mapping. Read-only. Example: :map _x :<C-U>echo "the count is " . v:count<CR> Note: The <C-U> is required to remove the line range that you get when typing ':' after a count. Also used for evaluating the 'formatexpr' option. "count" also works, for backwards compatibility. *v:count1* *count1-variable* v:count1 Just like "v:count", but defaults to one when no count is used. *v:ctype* *ctype-variable* v:ctype The current locale setting for characters of the runtime environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the current locale encoding. Technical: it's the value of LC_CTYPE. When not using a locale the value is "C". This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language| command. See |multi-lang|. *v:dying* *dying-variable* v:dying Normally zero. When a deadly signal is caught it's set to one. When multiple signals are caught the number increases. Can be used in an autocommand to check if Vim didn't terminate normally. {only works on Unix} Example: :au VimLeave * if v:dying | echo "\nAAAAaaaarrrggghhhh!!!\n" | endif *v:errmsg* *errmsg-variable* v:errmsg Last given error message. It's allowed to set this variable. Example: :let v:errmsg = "" :silent! next :if v:errmsg != "" : ... handle error "errmsg" also works, for backwards compatibility. *v:exception* *exception-variable* v:exception The value of the exception most recently caught and not finished. See also |v:throwpoint| and |throw-variables|. Example: :try : throw "oops" :catch /.*/ : echo "caught" v:exception :endtry Output: "caught oops". *v:fcs_reason* *fcs_reason-variable* v:fcs_reason The reason why the |FileChangedShell| event was triggered. Can be used in an autocommand to decide what to do and/or what to set v:fcs_choice to. Possible values: deleted file no longer exists conflict file contents, mode or timestamp was changed and buffer is modified changed file contents has changed mode mode of file changed time only file timestamp changed *v:fcs_choice* *fcs_choice-variable* v:fcs_choice What should happen after a |FileChangedShell| event was triggered. Can be used in an autocommand to tell Vim what to do with the affected buffer: reload Reload the buffer (does not work if the file was deleted). ask Ask the user what to do, as if there was no autocommand. Except that when only the timestamp changed nothing will happen. <empty> Nothing, the autocommand should do everything that needs to be done. The default is empty. If another (invalid) value is used then Vim behaves like it is empty, there is no warning message. *v:fname_in* *fname_in-variable* v:fname_in The name of the input file. Valid while evaluating: option used for 'charconvert' file to be converted 'diffexpr' original file 'patchexpr' original file 'printexpr' file to be printed And set to the swap file name for |SwapExists|. *v:fname_out* *fname_out-variable* v:fname_out The name of the output file. Only valid while evaluating: option used for 'charconvert' resulting converted file (*) 'diffexpr' output of diff 'patchexpr' resulting patched file (*) When doing conversion for a write command (e.g., ":w file") it will be equal to v:fname_in. When doing conversion for a read command (e.g., ":e file") it will be a temporary file and different from v:fname_in. *v:fname_new* *fname_new-variable* v:fname_new The name of the new version of the file. Only valid while evaluating 'diffexpr'. *v:fname_diff* *fname_diff-variable* v:fname_diff The name of the diff (patch) file. Only valid while evaluating 'patchexpr'. *v:folddashes* *folddashes-variable* v:folddashes Used for 'foldtext': dashes representing foldlevel of a closed fold. Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext| *v:foldlevel* *foldlevel-variable* v:foldlevel Used for 'foldtext': foldlevel of closed fold. Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext| *v:foldend* *foldend-variable* v:foldend Used for 'foldtext': last line of closed fold. Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext| *v:foldstart* *foldstart-variable* v:foldstart Used for 'foldtext': first line of closed fold. Read-only in the |sandbox|. |fold-foldtext| *v:insertmode* *insertmode-variable* v:insertmode Used for the |InsertEnter| and |InsertChange| autocommand events. Values: i Insert mode r Replace mode v Virtual Replace mode *v:key* *key-variable* v:key Key of the current item of a |Dictionary|. Only valid while evaluating the expression used with |map()| and |filter()|. Read-only. *v:lang* *lang-variable* v:lang The current locale setting for messages of the runtime environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_MESSAGES. The value is system dependent. This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language| command. It can be different from |v:ctype| when messages are desired in a different language than what is used for character encoding. See |multi-lang|. *v:lc_time* *lc_time-variable* v:lc_time The current locale setting for time messages of the runtime environment. This allows Vim scripts to be aware of the current language. Technical: it's the value of LC_TIME. This variable can not be set directly, use the |:language| command. See |multi-lang|. *v:lnum* *lnum-variable* v:lnum Line number for the 'foldexpr' |fold-expr| and 'indentexpr' expressions, tab page number for 'guitablabel' and 'guitabtooltip'. Only valid while one of these expressions is being evaluated. Read-only when in the |sandbox|. *v:mouse_win* *mouse_win-variable* v:mouse_win Window number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|. First window has number 1, like with |winnr()|. The value is zero when there was no mouse button click. *v:mouse_lnum* *mouse_lnum-variable* v:mouse_lnum Line number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|. This is the text line number, not the screen line number. The value is zero when there was no mouse button click. *v:mouse_col* *mouse_col-variable* v:mouse_col Column number for a mouse click obtained with |getchar()|. This is the screen column number, like with |virtcol()|. The value is zero when there was no mouse button click. *v:oldfiles* *oldfiles-variable* v:oldfiles List of file names that is loaded from the |viminfo| file on startup. These are the files that Vim remembers marks for. The length of the List is limited by the '' argument of the 'viminfo' option (default is 100). Also see |:oldfiles| and |c_#<|. The List can be modified, but this has no effect on what is stored in the |viminfo| file later. If you use values other than String this will cause trouble. {only when compiled with the +viminfo feature} *v:operator* *operator-variable* v:operator The last operator given in Normal mode. This is a single character except for commands starting with <g> or <z>, in which case it is two characters. Best used alongside |v:prevcount| and |v:register|. Useful if you want to cancel Operator-pending mode and then use the operator, e.g.: :omap O <Esc>:call MyMotion(v:operator)<CR> The value remains set until another operator is entered, thus don't expect it to be empty. v:operator is not set for |:delete|, |:yank| or other Ex commands. Read-only. *v:prevcount* *prevcount-variable* v:prevcount The count given for the last but one Normal mode command. This is the v:count value of the previous command. Useful if you want to cancel Visual or Operator-pending mode and then use the count, e.g.: :vmap % <Esc>:call MyFilter(v:prevcount)<CR> Read-only. *v:profiling* *profiling-variable* v:profiling Normally zero. Set to one after using ":profile start". See |profiling|. *v:progname* *progname-variable* v:progname Contains the name (with path removed) with which Vim was invoked. Allows you to do special initialisations for "view", "evim" etc., or any other name you might symlink to Vim. Read-only. *v:register* *register-variable* v:register The name of the register supplied to the last normal mode command. Empty if none were supplied. |getreg()| |setreg()| *v:scrollstart* *scrollstart-variable* v:scrollstart String describing the script or function that caused the screen to scroll up. It's only set when it is empty, thus the first reason is remembered. It is set to "Unknown" for a typed command. This can be used to find out why your script causes the hit-enter prompt. *v:servername* *servername-variable* v:servername The resulting registered |x11-clientserver| name if any. Read-only. v:searchforward *v:searchforward* *searchforward-variable* Search direction: 1 after a forward search, 0 after a backward search. It is reset to forward when directly setting the last search pattern, see |quote/|. Note that the value is restored when returning from a function. |function-search-undo|. Read-write. *v:shell_error* *shell_error-variable* v:shell_error Result of the last shell command. When non-zero, the last shell command had an error. When zero, there was no problem. This only works when the shell returns the error code to Vim. The value -1 is often used when the command could not be executed. Read-only. Example: :!mv foo bar :if v:shell_error : echo 'could not rename "foo" to "bar"!' :endif "shell_error" also works, for backwards compatibility. *v:statusmsg* *statusmsg-variable* v:statusmsg Last given status message. It's allowed to set this variable. *v:swapname* *swapname-variable* v:swapname Only valid when executing |SwapExists| autocommands: Name of the swap file found. Read-only. *v:swapchoice* *swapchoice-variable* v:swapchoice |SwapExists| autocommands can set this to the selected choice for handling an existing swap file: 'o' Open read-only 'e' Edit anyway 'r' Recover 'd' Delete swapfile 'q' Quit 'a' Abort The value should be a single-character string. An empty value results in the user being asked, as would happen when there is no SwapExists autocommand. The default is empty. *v:swapcommand* *swapcommand-variable* v:swapcommand Normal mode command to be executed after a file has been opened. Can be used for a |SwapExists| autocommand to have another Vim open the file and jump to the right place. For example, when jumping to a tag the value is ":tag tagname\r". For ":edit +cmd file" the value is ":cmd\r". *v:termresponse* *termresponse-variable* v:termresponse The escape sequence returned by the terminal for the |t_RV| termcap entry. It is set when Vim receives an escape sequence that starts with ESC [ or CSI and ends in a 'c', with only digits, ';' and '.' in between. When this option is set, the TermResponse autocommand event is fired, so that you can react to the response from the terminal. The response from a new xterm is: "<Esc>[ Pp ; Pv ; Pc c". Pp is the terminal type: 0 for vt100 and 1 for vt220. Pv is the patch level (since this was introduced in patch 95, it's always 95 or bigger). Pc is always zero. {only when compiled with |+termresponse| feature} *v:this_session* *this_session-variable* v:this_session Full filename of the last loaded or saved session file. See |:mksession|. It is allowed to set this variable. When no session file has been saved, this variable is empty. "this_session" also works, for backwards compatibility. *v:throwpoint* *throwpoint-variable* v:throwpoint The point where the exception most recently caught and not finished was thrown. Not set when commands are typed. See also |v:exception| and |throw-variables|. Example: :try : throw "oops" :catch /.*/ : echo "Exception from" v:throwpoint :endtry Output: "Exception from test.vim, line 2" *v:val* *val-variable* v:val Value of the current item of a |List| or |Dictionary|. Only valid while evaluating the expression used with |map()| and |filter()|. Read-only. *v:version* *version-variable* v:version Version number of Vim: Major version number times 100 plus minor version number. Version 5.0 is 500. Version 5.1 (5.01) is 501. Read-only. "version" also works, for backwards compatibility. Use |has()| to check if a certain patch was included, e.g.: if has("patch123") Note that patch numbers are specific to the version, thus both version 5.0 and 5.1 may have a patch 123, but these are completely different. *v:warningmsg* *warningmsg-variable* v:warningmsg Last given warning message. It's allowed to set this variable.
4. Builtin Functions *functions* See |function-list| for a list grouped by what the function is used for. (Use CTRL-] on the function name to jump to the full explanation.) USAGE RESULT DESCRIPTION abs( {expr}) Float or Number absolute value of {expr} add( {list}, {item}) List append {item} to |List| {list} append( {lnum}, {string}) Number append {string} below line {lnum} append( {lnum}, {list}) Number append lines {list} below line {lnum} argc() Number number of files in the argument list argidx() Number current index in the argument list argv( {nr}) String {nr} entry of the argument list argv( ) List the argument list atan( {expr}) Float arc tangent of {expr} browse( {save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default}) String put up a file requester browsedir( {title}, {initdir}) String put up a directory requester bufexists( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} exists buflisted( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is listed bufloaded( {expr}) Number TRUE if buffer {expr} is loaded bufname( {expr}) String Name of the buffer {expr} bufnr( {expr}) Number Number of the buffer {expr} bufwinnr( {expr}) Number window number of buffer {expr} byte2line( {byte}) Number line number at byte count {byte} byteidx( {expr}, {nr}) Number byte index of {nr}'th char in {expr} call( {func}, {arglist} [, {dict}]) any call {func} with arguments {arglist} ceil( {expr}) Float round {expr} up changenr() Number current change number char2nr( {expr}) Number ASCII value of first char in {expr} cindent( {lnum}) Number C indent for line {lnum} clearmatches() None clear all matches col( {expr}) Number column nr of cursor or mark complete({startcol}, {matches}) String set Insert mode completion complete_add( {expr}) Number add completion match complete_check() Number check for key typed during completion confirm( {msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]]) Number number of choice picked by user copy( {expr}) any make a shallow copy of {expr} cos( {expr}) Float cosine of {expr} count( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]]) Number count how many {expr} are in {list} cscope_connection( [{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]]) Number checks existence of cscope connection cursor( {lnum}, {col} [, {coladd}]) Number move cursor to {lnum}, {col}, {coladd} cursor( {list}) Number move cursor to position in {list} deepcopy( {expr}) any make a full copy of {expr} delete( {fname}) Number delete file {fname} did_filetype() Number TRUE if FileType autocommand event used diff_filler( {lnum}) Number diff filler lines about {lnum} diff_hlID( {lnum}, {col}) Number diff highlighting at {lnum}/{col} empty( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is empty escape( {string}, {chars}) String escape {chars} in {string} with '\' eval( {string}) any evaluate {string} into its value eventhandler( ) Number TRUE if inside an event handler executable( {expr}) Number 1 if executable {expr} exists exists( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} exists extend({expr1}, {expr2} [, {expr3}]) List/Dict insert items of {expr2} into {expr1} expand( {expr} [, {flag}]) String expand special keywords in {expr} feedkeys( {string} [, {mode}]) Number add key sequence to typeahead buffer filereadable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a readable file filewritable( {file}) Number TRUE if {file} is a writable file filter( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict remove items from {expr} where {string} is 0 finddir( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) String find directory {name} in {path} findfile( {name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) String find file {name} in {path} float2nr( {expr}) Number convert Float {expr} to a Number floor( {expr}) Float round {expr} down fnameescape( {fname}) String escape special characters in {fname} fnamemodify( {fname}, {mods}) String modify file name foldclosed( {lnum}) Number first line of fold at {lnum} if closed foldclosedend( {lnum}) Number last line of fold at {lnum} if closed foldlevel( {lnum}) Number fold level at {lnum} foldtext( ) String line displayed for closed fold foldtextresult( {lnum}) String text for closed fold at {lnum} foreground( ) Number bring the Vim window to the foreground function( {name}) Funcref reference to function {name} garbagecollect( [at_exit]) none free memory, breaking cyclic references get( {list}, {idx} [, {def}]) any get item {idx} from {list} or {def} get( {dict}, {key} [, {def}]) any get item {key} from {dict} or {def} getbufline( {expr}, {lnum} [, {end}]) List lines {lnum} to {end} of buffer {expr} getbufvar( {expr}, {varname}) any variable {varname} in buffer {expr} getchar( [expr]) Number get one character from the user getcharmod( ) Number modifiers for the last typed character getcmdline() String return the current command-line getcmdpos() Number return cursor position in command-line getcmdtype() String return the current command-line type getcwd() String the current working directory getfperm( {fname}) String file permissions of file {fname} getfsize( {fname}) Number size in bytes of file {fname} getfontname( [{name}]) String name of font being used getftime( {fname}) Number last modification time of file getftype( {fname}) String description of type of file {fname} getline( {lnum}) String line {lnum} of current buffer getline( {lnum}, {end}) List lines {lnum} to {end} of current buffer getloclist({nr}) List list of location list items getmatches() List list of current matches getpid() Number process ID of Vim getpos( {expr}) List position of cursor, mark, etc. getqflist() List list of quickfix items getreg( [{regname} [, 1]]) String contents of register getregtype( [{regname}]) String type of register gettabwinvar( {tabnr}, {winnr}, {name}) any {name} in {winnr} in tab page {tabnr} getwinposx() Number X coord in pixels of GUI Vim window getwinposy() Number Y coord in pixels of GUI Vim window getwinvar( {nr}, {varname}) any variable {varname} in window {nr} glob( {expr} [, {flag}]) String expand file wildcards in {expr} globpath( {path}, {expr} [, {flag}]) String do glob({expr}) for all dirs in {path} has( {feature}) Number TRUE if feature {feature} supported has_key( {dict}, {key}) Number TRUE if {dict} has entry {key} haslocaldir() Number TRUE if current window executed |:lcd| hasmapto( {what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) Number TRUE if mapping to {what} exists histadd( {history},{item}) String add an item to a history histdel( {history} [, {item}]) String remove an item from a history histget( {history} [, {index}]) String get the item {index} from a history histnr( {history}) Number highest index of a history hlexists( {name}) Number TRUE if highlight group {name} exists hlID( {name}) Number syntax ID of highlight group {name} hostname() String name of the machine Vim is running on iconv( {expr}, {from}, {to}) String convert encoding of {expr} indent( {lnum}) Number indent of line {lnum} index( {list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]]) Number index in {list} where {expr} appears input( {prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]]) String get input from the user inputdialog( {p} [, {t} [, {c}]]) String like input() but in a GUI dialog inputlist( {textlist}) Number let the user pick from a choice list inputrestore() Number restore typeahead inputsave() Number save and clear typeahead inputsecret( {prompt} [, {text}]) String like input() but hiding the text insert( {list}, {item} [, {idx}]) List insert {item} in {list} [before {idx}] isdirectory( {directory}) Number TRUE if {directory} is a directory islocked( {expr}) Number TRUE if {expr} is locked items( {dict}) List key-value pairs in {dict} join( {list} [, {sep}]) String join {list} items into one String keys( {dict}) List keys in {dict} len( {expr}) Number the length of {expr} libcall( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) String call {func} in library {lib} with {arg} libcallnr( {lib}, {func}, {arg}) Number idem, but return a Number line( {expr}) Number line nr of cursor, last line or mark line2byte( {lnum}) Number byte count of line {lnum} lispindent( {lnum}) Number Lisp indent for line {lnum} localtime() Number current time log10( {expr}) Float logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10 map( {expr}, {string}) List/Dict change each item in {expr} to {expr} maparg( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) String rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode} mapcheck( {name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) String check for mappings matching {name} match( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) Number position where {pat} matches in {expr} matchadd( {group}, {pattern}[, {priority}[, {id}]]) Number highlight {pattern} with {group} matcharg( {nr}) List arguments of |:match| matchdelete( {id}) Number delete match identified by {id} matchend( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) Number position where {pat} ends in {expr} matchlist( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) List match and submatches of {pat} in {expr} matchstr( {expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) String {count}'th match of {pat} in {expr} max({list}) Number maximum value of items in {list} min({list}) Number minimum value of items in {list} mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]]) Number create directory {name} mode( [expr]) String current editing mode nextnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line >= {lnum} nr2char( {expr}) String single char with ASCII value {expr} pathshorten( {expr}) String shorten directory names in a path pow( {x}, {y}) Float {x} to the power of {y} prevnonblank( {lnum}) Number line nr of non-blank line <= {lnum} printf( {fmt}, {expr1}...) String format text pumvisible() Number whether popup menu is visible range( {expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]]) List items from {expr} to {max} readfile({fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]]) List get list of lines from file {fname} reltime( [{start} [, {end}]]) List get time value reltimestr( {time}) String turn time value into a String remote_expr( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}]) String send expression remote_foreground( {server}) Number bring Vim server to the foreground remote_peek( {serverid} [, {retvar}]) Number check for reply string remote_read( {serverid}) String read reply string remote_send( {server}, {string} [, {idvar}]) String send key sequence remove( {list}, {idx} [, {end}]) any remove items {idx}-{end} from {list} remove( {dict}, {key}) any remove entry {key} from {dict} rename( {from}, {to}) Number rename (move) file from {from} to {to} repeat( {expr}, {count}) String repeat {expr} {count} times resolve( {filename}) String get filename a shortcut points to reverse( {list}) List reverse {list} in-place round( {expr}) Float round off {expr} search( {pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]) Number search for {pattern} searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]]) Number search for variable declaration searchpair( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]]) Number search for other end of start/end pair searchpairpos( {start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [...]]]) List search for other end of start/end pair searchpos( {pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]) List search for {pattern} server2client( {clientid}, {string}) Number send reply string serverlist() String get a list of available servers setbufvar( {expr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val} setcmdpos( {pos}) Number set cursor position in command-line setline( {lnum}, {line}) Number set line {lnum} to {line} setloclist( {nr}, {list}[, {action}]) Number modify location list using {list} setmatches( {list}) Number restore a list of matches setpos( {expr}, {list}) none set the {expr} position to {list} setqflist( {list}[, {action}]) Number modify quickfix list using {list} setreg( {n}, {v}[, {opt}]) Number set register to value and type settabwinvar( {tabnr}, {winnr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in window {winnr} in tab page {tabnr} to {val} setwinvar( {nr}, {varname}, {val}) set {varname} in window {nr} to {val} shellescape( {string} [, {special}]) String escape {string} for use as shell command argument simplify( {filename}) String simplify filename as much as possible sin( {expr}) Float sine of {expr} sort( {list} [, {func}]) List sort {list}, using {func} to compare soundfold( {word}) String sound-fold {word} spellbadword() String badly spelled word at cursor spellsuggest( {word} [, {max} [, {capital}]]) List spelling suggestions split( {expr} [, {pat} [, {keepempty}]]) List make |List| from {pat} separated {expr} sqrt( {expr} Float squar root of {expr} str2float( {expr}) Float convert String to Float str2nr( {expr} [, {base}]) Number convert String to Number strftime( {format}[, {time}]) String time in specified format stridx( {haystack}, {needle}[, {start}]) Number index of {needle} in {haystack} string( {expr}) String String representation of {expr} value strlen( {expr}) Number length of the String {expr} strpart( {src}, {start}[, {len}]) String {len} characters of {src} at {start} strridx( {haystack}, {needle} [, {start}]) Number last index of {needle} in {haystack} strtrans( {expr}) String translate string to make it printable submatch( {nr}) String specific match in ":substitute" substitute( {expr}, {pat}, {sub}, {flags}) String all {pat} in {expr} replaced with {sub} synID( {lnum}, {col}, {trans}) Number syntax ID at {lnum} and {col} synIDattr( {synID}, {what} [, {mode}]) String attribute {what} of syntax ID {synID} synIDtrans( {synID}) Number translated syntax ID of {synID} synstack({lnum}, {col}) List stack of syntax IDs at {lnum} and {col} system( {expr} [, {input}]) String output of shell command/filter {expr} tabpagebuflist( [{arg}]) List list of buffer numbers in tab page tabpagenr( [{arg}]) Number number of current or last tab page tabpagewinnr( {tabarg}[, {arg}]) Number number of current window in tab page taglist( {expr}) List list of tags matching {expr} tagfiles() List tags files used tempname() String name for a temporary file tolower( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to lowercase toupper( {expr}) String the String {expr} switched to uppercase tr( {src}, {fromstr}, {tostr}) String translate chars of {src} in {fromstr} to chars in {tostr} trunc( {expr} Float truncate Float {expr} type( {name}) Number type of variable {name} values( {dict}) List values in {dict} virtcol( {expr}) Number screen column of cursor or mark visualmode( [expr]) String last visual mode used winbufnr( {nr}) Number buffer number of window {nr} wincol() Number window column of the cursor winheight( {nr}) Number height of window {nr} winline() Number window line of the cursor winnr( [{expr}]) Number number of current window winrestcmd() String returns command to restore window sizes winrestview({dict}) None restore view of current window winsaveview() Dict save view of current window winwidth( {nr}) Number width of window {nr} writefile({list}, {fname} [, {binary}]) Number write list of lines to file {fname} abs({expr}) *abs()* Return the absolute value of {expr}. When {expr} evaluates to a |Float| abs() returns a |Float|. When {expr} can be converted to a |Number| abs() returns a |Number|. Otherwise abs() gives an error message and returns -1. Examples: echo abs(1.456) 1.456 echo abs(-5.456) 5.456 echo abs(-4) 4 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} add({list}, {expr}) *add()* Append the item {expr} to |List| {list}. Returns the resulting |List|. Examples: :let alist = add([1, 2, 3], item) :call add(mylist, "woodstock") Note that when {expr} is a |List| it is appended as a single item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|. Use |insert()| to add an item at another position. append({lnum}, {expr}) *append()* When {expr} is a |List|: Append each item of the |List| as a text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer. Otherwise append {expr} as one text line below line {lnum} in the current buffer. {lnum} can be zero to insert a line before the first one. Returns 1 for failure ({lnum} out of range or out of memory), 0 for success. Example: :let failed = append(line('$'), "# THE END") :let failed = append(0, ["Chapter 1", "the beginning"]) *argc()* argc() The result is the number of files in the argument list of the current window. See |arglist|. *argidx()* argidx() The result is the current index in the argument list. 0 is the first file. argc() - 1 is the last one. See |arglist|. *argv()* argv([{nr}]) The result is the {nr}th file in the argument list of the current window. See |arglist|. "argv(0)" is the first one. Example: :let i = 0 :while i < argc() : let f = escape(fnameescape(argv(i)), '.') : exe 'amenu Arg.' . f . ' :e ' . f . '<CR>' : let i = i + 1 :endwhile Without the {nr} argument a |List| with the whole |arglist| is returned. atan({expr}) *atan()* Return the principal value of the arc tangent of {expr}, in the range [-pi/2, +pi/2] radians, as a |Float|. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: :echo atan(100) 1.560797 :echo atan(-4.01) -1.326405 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} *browse()* browse({save}, {title}, {initdir}, {default}) Put up a file requester. This only works when "has("browse")" returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions). The input fields are: {save} when non-zero, select file to write {title} title for the requester {initdir} directory to start browsing in {default} default file name When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned. *browsedir()* browsedir({title}, {initdir}) Put up a directory requester. This only works when "has("browse")" returns non-zero (only in some GUI versions). On systems where a directory browser is not supported a file browser is used. In that case: select a file in the directory to be used. The input fields are: {title} title for the requester {initdir} directory to start browsing in When the "Cancel" button is hit, something went wrong, or browsing is not possible, an empty string is returned. bufexists({expr}) *bufexists()* The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called {expr} exists. If the {expr} argument is a number, buffer numbers are used. If the {expr} argument is a string it must match a buffer name exactly. The name can be: - Relative to the current directory. - A full path. - The name of a buffer with 'buftype' set to "nofile". - A URL name. Unlisted buffers will be found. Note that help files are listed by their short name in the output of |:buffers|, but bufexists() requires using their long name to be able to find them. bufexists() may report a buffer exists, but to use the name with a |:buffer| command you may need to use |expand()|. Esp for MS-Windows 8.3 names in the form "c:\DOCUME~1" Use "bufexists(0)" to test for the existence of an alternate file name. *buffer_exists()* Obsolete name: buffer_exists(). buflisted({expr}) *buflisted()* The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called {expr} exists and is listed (has the 'buflisted' option set). The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|. bufloaded({expr}) *bufloaded()* The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a buffer called {expr} exists and is loaded (shown in a window or hidden). The {expr} argument is used like with |bufexists()|. bufname({expr}) *bufname()* The result is the name of a buffer, as it is displayed by the ":ls" command. If {expr} is a Number, that buffer number's name is given. Number zero is the alternate buffer for the current window. If {expr} is a String, it is used as a |file-pattern| to match with the buffer names. This is always done like 'magic' is set and 'cpoptions' is empty. When there is more than one match an empty string is returned. "" or "%" can be used for the current buffer, "#" for the alternate buffer. A full match is preferred, otherwise a match at the start, end or middle of the buffer name is accepted. If you only want a full match then put "^" at the start and "$" at the end of the pattern. Listed buffers are found first. If there is a single match with a listed buffer, that one is returned. Next unlisted buffers are searched for. If the {expr} is a String, but you want to use it as a buffer number, force it to be a Number by adding zero to it: :echo bufname("3" + 0) If the buffer doesn't exist, or doesn't have a name, an empty string is returned. bufname("#") alternate buffer name bufname(3) name of buffer 3 bufname("%") name of current buffer bufname("file2") name of buffer where "file2" matches. *buffer_name()* Obsolete name: buffer_name(). *bufnr()* bufnr({expr} [, {create}]) The result is the number of a buffer, as it is displayed by the ":ls" command. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above. If the buffer doesn't exist, -1 is returned. Or, if the {create} argument is present and not zero, a new, unlisted, buffer is created and its number is returned. bufnr("$") is the last buffer: :let last_buffer = bufnr("$") The result is a Number, which is the highest buffer number of existing buffers. Note that not all buffers with a smaller number necessarily exist, because ":bwipeout" may have removed them. Use bufexists() to test for the existence of a buffer. *buffer_number()* Obsolete name: buffer_number(). *last_buffer_nr()* Obsolete name for bufnr("$"): last_buffer_nr(). bufwinnr({expr}) *bufwinnr()* The result is a Number, which is the number of the first window associated with buffer {expr}. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above. If buffer {expr} doesn't exist or there is no such window, -1 is returned. Example: echo "A window containing buffer 1 is " . (bufwinnr(1)) The number can be used with |CTRL-W_w| and ":wincmd w" |:wincmd|. Only deals with the current tab page. byte2line({byte}) *byte2line()* Return the line number that contains the character at byte count {byte} in the current buffer. This includes the end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option for the current buffer. The first character has byte count one. Also see |line2byte()|, |go| and |:goto|. {not available when compiled without the |+byte_offset| feature} byteidx({expr}, {nr}) *byteidx()* Return byte index of the {nr}'th character in the string {expr}. Use zero for the first character, it returns zero. This function is only useful when there are multibyte characters, otherwise the returned value is equal to {nr}. Composing characters are counted as a separate character. Example : echo matchstr(str, ".", byteidx(str, 3)) will display the fourth character. Another way to do the same: let s = strpart(str, byteidx(str, 3)) echo strpart(s, 0, byteidx(s, 1)) If there are less than {nr} characters -1 is returned. If there are exactly {nr} characters the length of the string is returned. call({func}, {arglist} [, {dict}]) *call()* *E699* Call function {func} with the items in |List| {arglist} as arguments. {func} can either be a |Funcref| or the name of a function. a:firstline and a:lastline are set to the cursor line. Returns the return value of the called function. {dict} is for functions with the "dict" attribute. It will be used to set the local variable "self". |Dictionary-function| ceil({expr}) *ceil()* Return the smallest integral value greater than or equal to {expr} as a |Float| (round up). {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: echo ceil(1.456) 2.0 echo ceil(-5.456) -5.0 echo ceil(4.0) 4.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} changenr() *changenr()* Return the number of the most recent change. This is the same number as what is displayed with |:undolist| and can be used with the |:undo| command. When a change was made it is the number of that change. After redo it is the number of the redone change. After undo it is one less than the number of the undone change. char2nr({expr}) *char2nr()* Return number value of the first char in {expr}. Examples: char2nr(" ") returns 32 char2nr("ABC") returns 65 The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": char2nr("á") returns 225 char2nr("á"[0]) returns 195 |nr2char()| does the opposite. cindent({lnum}) *cindent()* Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the C indenting rules, as with 'cindent'. The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|. When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the |+cindent| feature, -1 is returned. See |C-indenting|. clearmatches() *clearmatches()* Clears all matches previously defined by |matchadd()| and the |:match| commands. *col()* col({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the byte index of the column position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are: . the cursor position $ the end of the cursor line (the result is the number of characters in the cursor line plus one) 'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is returned) Additionally {expr} can be [lnum, col]: a |List| with the line and column number. Most useful when the column is "$", to get the last column of a specific line. When "lnum" or "col" is out of range then col() returns zero. To get the line number use |line()|. To get both use |getpos()|. For the screen column position use |virtcol()|. Note that only marks in the current file can be used. Examples: col(".") column of cursor col("$") length of cursor line plus one col("'t") column of mark t col("'" . markname) column of mark markname The first column is 1. 0 is returned for an error. For an uppercase mark the column may actually be in another buffer. For the cursor position, when 'virtualedit' is active, the column is one higher if the cursor is after the end of the line. This can be used to obtain the column in Insert mode: :imap <F2> <C-O>:let save_ve = &ve<CR> \<C-O>:set ve=all<CR> \<C-O>:echo col(".") . "\n" <Bar> \let &ve = save_ve<CR> complete({startcol}, {matches}) *complete()* *E785* Set the matches for Insert mode completion. Can only be used in Insert mode. You need to use a mapping with CTRL-R = |i_CTRL-R|. It does not work after CTRL-O or with an expression mapping. {startcol} is the byte offset in the line where the completed text start. The text up to the cursor is the original text that will be replaced by the matches. Use col('.') for an empty string. "col('.') - 1" will replace one character by a match. {matches} must be a |List|. Each |List| item is one match. See |complete-items| for the kind of items that are possible. Note that the after calling this function you need to avoid inserting anything that would completion to stop. The match can be selected with CTRL-N and CTRL-P as usual with Insert mode completion. The popup menu will appear if specified, see |ins-completion-menu|. Example: inoremap <F5> <C-R>=ListMonths()<CR> func! ListMonths() call complete(col('.'), ['January', 'February', 'March', \ 'April', 'May', 'June', 'July', 'August', 'September', \ 'October', 'November', 'December']) return '' endfunc This isn't very useful, but it shows how it works. Note that an empty string is returned to avoid a zero being inserted. complete_add({expr}) *complete_add()* Add {expr} to the list of matches. Only to be used by the function specified with the 'completefunc' option. Returns 0 for failure (empty string or out of memory), 1 when the match was added, 2 when the match was already in the list. See |complete-functions| for an explanation of {expr}. It is the same as one item in the list that 'omnifunc' would return. complete_check() *complete_check()* Check for a key typed while looking for completion matches. This is to be used when looking for matches takes some time. Returns non-zero when searching for matches is to be aborted, zero otherwise. Only to be used by the function specified with the 'completefunc' option. *confirm()* confirm({msg} [, {choices} [, {default} [, {type}]]]) Confirm() offers the user a dialog, from which a choice can be made. It returns the number of the choice. For the first choice this is 1. Note: confirm() is only supported when compiled with dialog support, see |+dialog_con| and |+dialog_gui|. {msg} is displayed in a |dialog| with {choices} as the alternatives. When {choices} is missing or empty, "&OK" is used (and translated). {msg} is a String, use '\n' to include a newline. Only on some systems the string is wrapped when it doesn't fit. {choices} is a String, with the individual choices separated by '\n', e.g. confirm("Save changes?", "&Yes\n&No\n&Cancel") The letter after the '&' is the shortcut key for that choice. Thus you can type 'c' to select "Cancel". The shortcut does not need to be the first letter: confirm("file has been modified", "&Save\nSave &All") For the console, the first letter of each choice is used as the default shortcut key. The optional {default} argument is the number of the choice that is made if the user hits <CR>. Use 1 to make the first choice the default one. Use 0 to not set a default. If {default} is omitted, 1 is used. The optional {type} argument gives the type of dialog. This is only used for the icon of the Win32 GUI. It can be one of these values: "Error", "Question", "Info", "Warning" or "Generic". Only the first character is relevant. When {type} is omitted, "Generic" is used. If the user aborts the dialog by pressing <Esc>, CTRL-C, or another valid interrupt key, confirm() returns 0. An example: :let choice = confirm("What do you want?", "&Apples\n&Oranges\n&Bananas", 2) :if choice == 0 : echo "make up your mind!" :elseif choice == 3 : echo "tasteful" :else : echo "I prefer bananas myself." :endif In a GUI dialog, buttons are used. The layout of the buttons depends on the 'v' flag in 'guioptions'. If it is included, the buttons are always put vertically. Otherwise, confirm() tries to put the buttons in one horizontal line. If they don't fit, a vertical layout is used anyway. For some systems the horizontal layout is always used. *copy()* copy({expr}) Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't different from using {expr} directly. When {expr} is a |List| a shallow copy is created. This means that the original |List| can be changed without changing the copy, and vice versa. But the items are identical, thus changing an item changes the contents of both |Lists|. Also see |deepcopy()|. cos({expr}) *cos()* Return the cosine of {expr}, measured in radians, as a |Float|. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: :echo cos(100) 0.862319 :echo cos(-4.01) -0.646043 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} count({comp}, {expr} [, {ic} [, {start}]]) *count()* Return the number of times an item with value {expr} appears in |List| or |Dictionary| {comp}. If {start} is given then start with the item with this index. {start} can only be used with a |List|. When {ic} is given and it's non-zero then case is ignored. *cscope_connection()* cscope_connection([{num} , {dbpath} [, {prepend}]]) Checks for the existence of a |cscope| connection. If no parameters are specified, then the function returns: 0, if cscope was not available (not compiled in), or if there are no cscope connections; 1, if there is at least one cscope connection. If parameters are specified, then the value of {num} determines how existence of a cscope connection is checked: {num} Description of existence check ----- ------------------------------ 0 Same as no parameters (e.g., "cscope_connection()"). 1 Ignore {prepend}, and use partial string matches for {dbpath}. 2 Ignore {prepend}, and use exact string matches for {dbpath}. 3 Use {prepend}, use partial string matches for both {dbpath} and {prepend}. 4 Use {prepend}, use exact string matches for both {dbpath} and {prepend}. Note: All string comparisons are case sensitive! Examples. Suppose we had the following (from ":cs show"): # pid database name prepend path 0 27664 cscope.out /usr/local Invocation Return Val ---------- ---------- cscope_connection() 1 cscope_connection(1, "out") 1 cscope_connection(2, "out") 0 cscope_connection(3, "out") 0 cscope_connection(3, "out", "local") 1 cscope_connection(4, "out") 0 cscope_connection(4, "out", "local") 0 cscope_connection(4, "cscope.out", "/usr/local") 1 cursor({lnum}, {col} [, {off}]) *cursor()* cursor({list}) Positions the cursor at the column (byte count) {col} in the line {lnum}. The first column is one. When there is one argument {list} this is used as a |List| with two or three items {lnum}, {col} and {off}. This is like the return value of |getpos()|, but without the first item. Does not change the jumplist. If {lnum} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer, the cursor will be positioned at the last line in the buffer. If {lnum} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current line. If {col} is greater than the number of bytes in the line, the cursor will be positioned at the last character in the line. If {col} is zero, the cursor will stay in the current column. When 'virtualedit' is used {off} specifies the offset in screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last character. Returns 0 when the position could be set, -1 otherwise. deepcopy({expr}[, {noref}]) *deepcopy()* *E698* Make a copy of {expr}. For Numbers and Strings this isn't different from using {expr} directly. When {expr} is a |List| a full copy is created. This means that the original |List| can be changed without changing the copy, and vice versa. When an item is a |List|, a copy for it is made, recursively. Thus changing an item in the copy does not change the contents of the original |List|. When {noref} is omitted or zero a contained |List| or |Dictionary| is only copied once. All references point to this single copy. With {noref} set to 1 every occurrence of a |List| or |Dictionary| results in a new copy. This also means that a cyclic reference causes deepcopy() to fail. *E724* Nesting is possible up to 100 levels. When there is an item that refers back to a higher level making a deep copy with {noref} set to 1 will fail. Also see |copy()|. delete({fname}) *delete()* Deletes the file by the name {fname}. The result is a Number, which is 0 if the file was deleted successfully, and non-zero when the deletion failed. Use |remove()| to delete an item from a |List|. *did_filetype()* did_filetype() Returns non-zero when autocommands are being executed and the FileType event has been triggered at least once. Can be used to avoid triggering the FileType event again in the scripts that detect the file type. |FileType| When editing another file, the counter is reset, thus this really checks if the FileType event has been triggered for the current buffer. This allows an autocommand that starts editing another buffer to set 'filetype' and load a syntax file. diff_filler({lnum}) *diff_filler()* Returns the number of filler lines above line {lnum}. These are the lines that were inserted at this point in another diff'ed window. These filler lines are shown in the display but don't exist in the buffer. {lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current line, "'m" mark m, etc. Returns 0 if the current window is not in diff mode. diff_hlID({lnum}, {col}) *diff_hlID()* Returns the highlight ID for diff mode at line {lnum} column {col} (byte index). When the current line does not have a diff change zero is returned. {lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current line, "'m" mark m, etc. {col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first line. The highlight ID can be used with |synIDattr()| to obtain syntax information about the highlighting. empty({expr}) *empty()* Return the Number 1 if {expr} is empty, zero otherwise. A |List| or |Dictionary| is empty when it does not have any items. A Number is empty when its value is zero. For a long |List| this is much faster then comparing the length with zero. escape({string}, {chars}) *escape()* Escape the characters in {chars} that occur in {string} with a backslash. Example: :echo escape('c:\program files\vim', ' \') results in: c:\\program\ files\\vim Also see |shellescape()|. *eval()* eval({string}) Evaluate {string} and return the result. Especially useful to turn the result of |string()| back into the original value. This works for Numbers, Floats, Strings and composites of them. Also works for |Funcref|s that refer to existing functions. eventhandler() *eventhandler()* Returns 1 when inside an event handler. That is that Vim got interrupted while waiting for the user to type a character, e.g., when dropping a file on Vim. This means interactive commands cannot be used. Otherwise zero is returned. executable({expr}) *executable()* This function checks if an executable with the name {expr} exists. {expr} must be the name of the program without any arguments. executable() uses the value of $PATH and/or the normal searchpath for programs. *PATHEXT* On MS-DOS and MS-Windows the ".exe", ".bat", etc. can optionally be included. Then the extensions in $PATHEXT are tried. Thus if "foo.exe" does not exist, "foo.exe.bat" can be found. If $PATHEXT is not set then ".exe;.com;.bat;.cmd" is used. A dot by itself can be used in $PATHEXT to try using the name without an extension. When 'shell' looks like a Unix shell, then the name is also tried without adding an extension. On MS-DOS and MS-Windows it only checks if the file exists and is not a directory, not if it's really executable. On MS-Windows an executable in the same directory as Vim is always found. Since this directory is added to $PATH it should also work to execute it |win32-PATH|. The result is a Number: 1 exists 0 does not exist -1 not implemented on this system *exists()* exists({expr}) The result is a Number, which is non-zero if {expr} is defined, zero otherwise. The {expr} argument is a string, which contains one of these: &option-name Vim option (only checks if it exists, not if it really works) +option-name Vim option that works. $ENVNAME environment variable (could also be done by comparing with an empty string) *funcname built-in function (see |functions|) or user defined function (see |user-functions|). varname internal variable (see |internal-variables|). Also works for |curly-braces-names|, |Dictionary| entries, |List| items, etc. Beware that evaluating an index may cause an error message for an invalid expression. E.g.: :let l = [1, 2, 3] :echo exists("l[5]") 0 :echo exists("l[xx]") E121: Undefined variable: xx 0 :cmdname Ex command: built-in command, user command or command modifier |:command|. Returns: 1 for match with start of a command 2 full match with a command 3 matches several user commands To check for a supported command always check the return value to be 2. :2match The |:2match| command. :3match The |:3match| command. #event autocommand defined for this event #event#pattern autocommand defined for this event and pattern (the pattern is taken literally and compared to the autocommand patterns character by character) #group autocommand group exists #group#event autocommand defined for this group and event. #group#event#pattern autocommand defined for this group, event and pattern. ##event autocommand for this event is supported. For checking for a supported feature use |has()|. Examples: exists("&shortname") exists("$HOSTNAME") exists("*strftime") exists("*s:MyFunc") exists("bufcount") exists(":Make") exists("#CursorHold") exists("#BufReadPre#*.gz") exists("#filetypeindent") exists("#filetypeindent#FileType") exists("#filetypeindent#FileType#*") exists("##ColorScheme") There must be no space between the symbol (&/$/*/#) and the name. There must be no extra characters after the name, although in a few cases this is ignored. That may become more strict in the future, thus don't count on it! Working example: exists(":make") NOT working example: exists(":make install") Note that the argument must be a string, not the name of the variable itself. For example: exists(bufcount) This doesn't check for existence of the "bufcount" variable, but gets the value of "bufcount", and checks if that exists. expand({expr} [, {flag}]) *expand()* Expand wildcards and the following special keywords in {expr}. The result is a String. When there are several matches, they are separated by <NL> characters. [Note: in version 5.0 a space was used, which caused problems when a file name contains a space] If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string. A name for a non-existing file is not included. When {expr} starts with '%', '#' or '<', the expansion is done like for the |cmdline-special| variables with their associated modifiers. Here is a short overview: % current file name # alternate file name #n alternate file name n <cfile> file name under the cursor <afile> autocmd file name <abuf> autocmd buffer number (as a String!) <amatch> autocmd matched name <sfile> sourced script file name <cword> word under the cursor <cWORD> WORD under the cursor <client> the {clientid} of the last received message |server2client()| Modifiers: :p expand to full path :h head (last path component removed) :t tail (last path component only) :r root (one extension removed) :e extension only Example: :let &tags = expand("%:p:h") . "/tags" Note that when expanding a string that starts with '%', '#' or '<', any following text is ignored. This does NOT work: :let doesntwork = expand("%:h.bak") Use this: :let doeswork = expand("%:h") . ".bak" Also note that expanding "<cfile>" and others only returns the referenced file name without further expansion. If "<cfile>" is "~/.cshrc", you need to do another expand() to have the "~/" expanded into the path of the home directory: :echo expand(expand("<cfile>")) There cannot be white space between the variables and the following modifier. The |fnamemodify()| function can be used to modify normal file names. When using '%' or '#', and the current or alternate file name is not defined, an empty string is used. Using "%:p" in a buffer with no name, results in the current directory, with a '/' added. When {expr} does not start with '%', '#' or '<', it is expanded like a file name is expanded on the command line. 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' are used, unless the optional {flag} argument is given and it is non-zero. Names for non-existing files are included. The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree. For example, to find all "README" files in the current directory and below: :echo expand("**/README") Expand() can also be used to expand variables and environment variables that are only known in a shell. But this can be slow, because a shell must be started. See |expr-env-expand|. The expanded variable is still handled like a list of file names. When an environment variable cannot be expanded, it is left unchanged. Thus ":echo expand('$FOOBAR')" results in "$FOOBAR". See |glob()| for finding existing files. See |system()| for getting the raw output of an external command. extend({expr1}, {expr2} [, {expr3}]) *extend()* {expr1} and {expr2} must be both |Lists| or both |Dictionaries|. If they are |Lists|: Append {expr2} to {expr1}. If {expr3} is given insert the items of {expr2} before item {expr3} in {expr1}. When {expr3} is zero insert before the first item. When {expr3} is equal to len({expr1}) then {expr2} is appended. Examples: :echo sort(extend(mylist, [7, 5])) :call extend(mylist, [2, 3], 1) When {expr1} is the same List as {expr2} then the number of items copied is equal to the original length of the List. E.g., when {expr3} is 1 you get N new copies of the first item (where N is the original length of the List). Use |add()| to concatenate one item to a list. To concatenate two lists into a new list use the + operator: :let newlist = [1, 2, 3] + [4, 5] If they are YXXYDictionaries|: Add all entries from {expr2} to {expr1}. If a key exists in both {expr1} and {expr2} then {expr3} is used to decide what to do: {expr3} = "keep": keep the value of {expr1} {expr3} = "force": use the value of {expr2} {expr3} = "error": give an error message *E737* When {expr3} is omitted then "force" is assumed. {expr1} is changed when {expr2} is not empty. If necessary make a copy of {expr1} first. {expr2} remains unchanged. Returns {expr1}. feedkeys({string} [, {mode}]) *feedkeys()* Characters in {string} are queued for processing as if they come from a mapping or were typed by the user. They are added to the end of the typeahead buffer, thus if a mapping is still being executed these characters come after them. The function does not wait for processing of keys contained in {string}. To include special keys into {string}, use double-quotes and "\..." notation |expr-quote|. For example, feedkeys("\<CR>") simulates pressing of the <Enter> key. But feedkeys('\<CR>') pushes 5 characters. If {mode} is absent, keys are remapped. {mode} is a String, which can contain these character flags: 'm' Remap keys. This is default. 'n' Do not remap keys. 't' Handle keys as if typed; otherwise they are handled as if coming from a mapping. This matters for undo, opening folds, etc. Return value is always 0. filereadable({file}) *filereadable()* The result is a Number, which is TRUE when a file with the name {file} exists, and can be read. If {file} doesn't exist, or is a directory, the result is FALSE. {file} is any expression, which is used as a String. If you don't care about the file being readable you can use |glob()|. *file_readable()* Obsolete name: file_readable(). filewritable({file}) *filewritable()* The result is a Number, which is 1 when a file with the name {file} exists, and can be written. If {file} doesn't exist, or is not writable, the result is 0. If {file} is a directory, and we can write to it, the result is 2. filter({expr}, {string}) *filter()* {expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|. For each item in {expr} evaluate {string} and when the result is zero remove the item from the |List| or |Dictionary|. Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item. For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item. Examples: :call filter(mylist, 'v:val !~ "OLD"') Removes the items where "OLD" appears. :call filter(mydict, 'v:key >= 8') Removes the items with a key below 8. :call filter(var, 0) Removes all the items, thus clears the |List| or |Dictionary|. Note that {string} is the result of expression and is then used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a |literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes. The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or |Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: :let l = filter(copy(mylist), 'v:val =~ "KEEP"') Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered. When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no further items in {expr} are processed. finddir({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *finddir()* Find directory {name} in {path}. Supports both downwards and upwards recursive directory searches. See |file-searching| for the syntax of {path}. Returns the path of the first found match. When the found directory is below the current directory a relative path is returned. Otherwise a full path is returned. If {path} is omitted or empty then 'path' is used. If the optional {count} is given, find {count}'s occurrence of {name} in {path} instead of the first one. When {count} is negative return all the matches in a |List|. This is quite similar to the ex-command |:find|. {only available when compiled with the +file_in_path feature} findfile({name}[, {path}[, {count}]]) *findfile()* Just like |finddir()|, but find a file instead of a directory. Uses 'suffixesadd'. Example: :echo findfile("tags.vim", ".;") Searches from the directory of the current file upwards until it finds the file "tags.vim". float2nr({expr}) *float2nr()* Convert {expr} to a Number by omitting the part after the decimal point. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a Number. When the value of {expr} is out of range for a |Number| the result is truncated to 0x7fffffff or -0x7fffffff. NaN results in -0x80000000. Examples: echo float2nr(3.95) 3 echo float2nr(-23.45) -23 echo float2nr(1.0e100) 2147483647 echo float2nr(-1.0e150) -2147483647 echo float2nr(1.0e-100) 0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} floor({expr}) *floor()* Return the largest integral value less than or equal to {expr} as a |Float| (round down). {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: echo floor(1.856) 1.0 echo floor(-5.456) -6.0 echo floor(4.0) 4.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} fnameescape({string}) *fnameescape()* Escape {string} for use as file name command argument. All characters that have a special meaning, such as '%' and '|' are escaped with a backslash. For most systems the characters escaped are " \t\n*?[{`$\\%#'\"|!<". For systems where a backslash appears in a filename, it depends on the value of 'isfname'. A leading '+' and '>' is also escaped (special after |:edit| and |:write|). And a "-" by itself (special after |:cd|). Example: :let fname = '+some str%nge|name' :exe "edit " . fnameescape(fname) results in executing: edit \+some\ str\%nge\|name fnamemodify({fname}, {mods}) *fnamemodify()* Modify file name {fname} according to {mods}. {mods} is a string of characters like it is used for file names on the command line. See |filename-modifiers|. Example: :echo fnamemodify("main.c", ":p:h") results in: /home/mool/vim/vim/src Note: Environment variables don't work in {fname}, use |expand()| first then. foldclosed({lnum}) *foldclosed()* The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed fold, the result is the number of the first line in that fold. If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned. foldclosedend({lnum}) *foldclosedend()* The result is a Number. If the line {lnum} is in a closed fold, the result is the number of the last line in that fold. If the line {lnum} is not in a closed fold, -1 is returned. foldlevel({lnum}) *foldlevel()* The result is a Number, which is the foldlevel of line {lnum} in the current buffer. For nested folds the deepest level is returned. If there is no fold at line {lnum}, zero is returned. It doesn't matter if the folds are open or closed. When used while updating folds (from 'foldexpr') -1 is returned for lines where folds are still to be updated and the foldlevel is unknown. As a special case the level of the previous line is usually available. *foldtext()* foldtext() Returns a String, to be displayed for a closed fold. This is the default function used for the 'foldtext' option and should only be called from evaluating 'foldtext'. It uses the |v:foldstart|, |v:foldend| and |v:folddashes| variables. The returned string looks like this: +-- 45 lines: abcdef The number of dashes depends on the foldlevel. The "45" is the number of lines in the fold. "abcdef" is the text in the first non-blank line of the fold. Leading white space, "//" or "/*" and the text from the 'foldmarker' and 'commentstring' options is removed. {not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature} foldtextresult({lnum}) *foldtextresult()* Returns the text that is displayed for the closed fold at line {lnum}. Evaluates 'foldtext' in the appropriate context. When there is no closed fold at {lnum} an empty string is returned. {lnum} is used like with |getline()|. Thus "." is the current line, "'m" mark m, etc. Useful when exporting folded text, e.g., to HTML. {not available when compiled without the |+folding| feature} *foreground()* foreground() Move the Vim window to the foreground. Useful when sent from a client to a Vim server. |remote_send()| On Win32 systems this might not work, the OS does not always allow a window to bring itself to the foreground. Use |remote_foreground()| instead. {only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the Win32 console version} function({name}) *function()* *E700* Return a |Funcref| variable that refers to function {name}. {name} can be a user defined function or an internal function. garbagecollect([at_exit]) *garbagecollect()* Cleanup unused |Lists| and |Dictionaries| that have circular references. There is hardly ever a need to invoke this function, as it is automatically done when Vim runs out of memory or is waiting for the user to press a key after 'updatetime'. Items without circular references are always freed when they become unused. This is useful if you have deleted a very big |List| and/or |Dictionary| with circular references in a script that runs for a long time. When the optional "at_exit" argument is one, garbage collection will also be done when exiting Vim, if it wasn't done before. This is useful when checking for memory leaks. get({list}, {idx} [, {default}]) *get()* Get item {idx} from |List| {list}. When this item is not available return {default}. Return zero when {default} is omitted. get({dict}, {key} [, {default}]) Get item with key {key} from |Dictionary| {dict}. When this item is not available return {default}. Return zero when {default} is omitted. *getbufline()* getbufline({expr}, {lnum} [, {end}]) Return a |List| with the lines starting from {lnum} to {end} (inclusive) in the buffer {expr}. If {end} is omitted, a |List| with only the line {lnum} is returned. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above. For {lnum} and {end} "$" can be used for the last line of the buffer. Otherwise a number must be used. When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of lines in the buffer, an empty |List| is returned. When {end} is greater than the number of lines in the buffer, it is treated as {end} is set to the number of lines in the buffer. When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is returned. This function works only for loaded buffers. For unloaded and non-existing buffers, an empty |List| is returned. Example: :let lines = getbufline(bufnr("myfile"), 1, "$") getbufvar({expr}, {varname}) *getbufvar()* The result is the value of option or local buffer variable {varname} in buffer {expr}. Note that the name without "b:" must be used. When {varname} is empty returns a dictionary with all the buffer-local variables. This also works for a global or buffer-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable, window-local variable or window-local option. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above. When the buffer or variable doesn't exist an empty string is returned, there is no error message. Examples: :let bufmodified = getbufvar(1, "&mod") :echo "todo myvar = " . getbufvar("todo", "myvar") getchar([expr]) *getchar()* Get a single character from the user or input stream. If [expr] is omitted, wait until a character is available. If [expr] is 0, only get a character when one is available. Return zero otherwise. If [expr] is 1, only check if a character is available, it is not consumed. Return zero if no character available. Without {expr} and when {expr} is 0 a whole character or special key is returned. If it is an 8-bit character, the result is a number. Use nr2char() to convert it to a String. Otherwise a String is returned with the encoded character. For a special key it's a sequence of bytes starting with 0x80 (decimal: 128). This is the same value as the string "\<Key>", e.g., "\<Left>". The returned value is also a String when a modifier (shift, control, alt) was used that is not included in the character. When {expr} is 1 only the first byte is returned. For a one-byte character it is the character itself as a number. Use nr2char() to convert it to a String. When the user clicks a mouse button, the mouse event will be returned. The position can then be found in |v:mouse_col|, |v:mouse_lnum| and |v:mouse_win|. This example positions the mouse as it would normally happen: let c = getchar() if c == "\<LeftMouse>" && v:mouse_win > 0 exe v:mouse_win . "wincmd w" exe v:mouse_lnum exe "normal " . v:mouse_col . "|" endif There is no prompt, you will somehow have to make clear to the user that a character has to be typed. There is no mapping for the character. Key codes are replaced, thus when the user presses the <Del> key you get the code for the <Del> key, not the raw character sequence. Examples: getchar() == "\<Del>" getchar() == "\<S-Left>" This example redefines "f" to ignore case: :nmap f :call FindChar()<CR> :function FindChar() : let c = nr2char(getchar()) : while col('.') < col('$') - 1 : normal l : if getline('.')[col('.') - 1] ==? c : break : endif : endwhile :endfunction getcharmod() *getcharmod()* The result is a Number which is the state of the modifiers for the last obtained character with getchar() or in another way. These values are added together: 2 shift 4 control 8 alt (meta) 16 mouse double click 32 mouse triple click 64 mouse quadruple click 128 Macintosh only: command Only the modifiers that have not been included in the character itself are obtained. Thus Shift-a results in "A" with no modifier. getcmdline() *getcmdline()* Return the current command-line. Only works when the command line is being edited, thus requires use of |c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=|. Example: :cmap <F7> <C-\>eescape(getcmdline(), ' \')<CR> Also see |getcmdtype()|, |getcmdpos()| and |setcmdpos()|. getcmdpos() *getcmdpos()* Return the position of the cursor in the command line as a byte count. The first column is 1. Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of |c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=|. Returns 0 otherwise. Also see |getcmdtype()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|. getcmdtype() *getcmdtype()* Return the current command-line type. Possible return values are: : normal Ex command > debug mode command |debug-mode| / forward search command ? backward search command @ |input()| command - |:insert| or |:append| command Only works when editing the command line, thus requires use of |c_CTRL-\_e| or |c_CTRL-R_=|. Returns an empty string otherwise. Also see |getcmdpos()|, |setcmdpos()| and |getcmdline()|. *getcwd()* getcwd() The result is a String, which is the name of the current working directory. getfsize({fname}) *getfsize()* The result is a Number, which is the size in bytes of the given file {fname}. If {fname} is a directory, 0 is returned. If the file {fname} can't be found, -1 is returned. If the size of {fname} is too big to fit in a Number then -2 is returned. getfontname([{name}]) *getfontname()* Without an argument returns the name of the normal font being used. Like what is used for the Normal highlight group |hl-Normal|. With an argument a check is done whether {name} is a valid font name. If not then an empty string is returned. Otherwise the actual font name is returned, or {name} if the GUI does not support obtaining the real name. Only works when the GUI is running, thus not in your vimrc or gvimrc file. Use the |GUIEnter| autocommand to use this function just after the GUI has started. Note that the GTK 2 GUI accepts any font name, thus checking for a valid name does not work. getfperm({fname}) *getfperm()* The result is a String, which is the read, write, and execute permissions of the given file {fname}. If {fname} does not exist or its directory cannot be read, an empty string is returned. The result is of the form "rwxrwxrwx", where each group of "rwx" flags represent, in turn, the permissions of the owner of the file, the group the file belongs to, and other users. If a user does not have a given permission the flag for this is replaced with the string "-". Example: :echo getfperm("/etc/passwd") This will hopefully (from a security point of view) display the string "rw-r--r--" or even "rw-------". getftime({fname}) *getftime()* The result is a Number, which is the last modification time of the given file {fname}. The value is measured as seconds since 1st Jan 1970, and may be passed to strftime(). See also |localtime()| and |strftime()|. If the file {fname} can't be found -1 is returned. getftype({fname}) *getftype()* The result is a String, which is a description of the kind of file of the given file {fname}. If {fname} does not exist an empty string is returned. Here is a table over different kinds of files and their results: Normal file "file" Directory "dir" Symbolic link "link" Block device "bdev" Character device "cdev" Socket "socket" FIFO "fifo" All other "other" Example: getftype("/home") Note that a type such as "link" will only be returned on systems that support it. On some systems only "dir" and "file" are returned. *getline()* getline({lnum} [, {end}]) Without {end} the result is a String, which is line {lnum} from the current buffer. Example: getline(1) When {lnum} is a String that doesn't start with a digit, line() is called to translate the String into a Number. To get the line under the cursor: getline(".") When {lnum} is smaller than 1 or bigger than the number of lines in the buffer, an empty string is returned. When {end} is given the result is a |List| where each item is a line from the current buffer in the range {lnum} to {end}, including line {end}. {end} is used in the same way as {lnum}. Non-existing lines are silently omitted. When {end} is before {lnum} an empty |List| is returned. Example: :let start = line('.') :let end = search("^$") - 1 :let lines = getline(start, end) To get lines from another buffer see |getbufline()| getloclist({nr}) *getloclist()* Returns a list with all the entries in the location list for window {nr}. When {nr} is zero the current window is used. For a location list window, the displayed location list is returned. For an invalid window number {nr}, an empty list is returned. Otherwise, same as getqflist(). getmatches() *getmatches()* Returns a |List| with all matches previously defined by |matchadd()| and the |:match| commands. |getmatches()| is useful in combination with |setmatches()|, as |setmatches()| can restore a list of matches saved by |getmatches()|. Example: :echo getmatches() [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO', 'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2', 'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}] :let m = getmatches() :call clearmatches() :echo getmatches() [] :call setmatches(m) :echo getmatches() [{'group': 'MyGroup1', 'pattern': 'TODO', 'priority': 10, 'id': 1}, {'group': 'MyGroup2', 'pattern': 'FIXME', 'priority': 10, 'id': 2}] :unlet m getqflist() *getqflist()* Returns a list with all the current quickfix errors. Each list item is a dictionary with these entries: bufnr number of buffer that has the file name, use bufname() to get the name lnum line number in the buffer (first line is 1) col column number (first column is 1) vcol non-zero: "col" is visual column zero: "col" is byte index nr error number pattern search pattern used to locate the error text description of the error type type of the error, 'E', '1', etc. valid non-zero: recognized error message When there is no error list or it's empty an empty list is returned. Quickfix list entries with non-existing buffer number are returned with "bufnr" set to zero. Useful application: Find pattern matches in multiple files and do something with them: :vimgrep /theword/jg *.c :for d in getqflist() : echo bufname(d.bufnr) ':' d.lnum '=' d.text :endfor getreg([{regname} [, 1]]) *getreg()* The result is a String, which is the contents of register {regname}. Example: :let cliptext = getreg('*') getreg('=') returns the last evaluated value of the expression register. (For use in maps.) getreg('=', 1) returns the expression itself, so that it can be restored with |setreg()|. For other registers the extra argument is ignored, thus you can always give it. If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used. getregtype([{regname}]) *getregtype()* The result is a String, which is type of register {regname}. The value will be one of: "v" for |characterwise| text "V" for |linewise| text "<CTRL-V>{width}" for |blockwise-visual| text 0 for an empty or unknown register <CTRL-V> is one character with value 0x16. If {regname} is not specified, |v:register| is used. gettabwinvar({tabnr}, {winnr}, {varname}) *gettabwinvar()* Get the value of window-local variable {varname} in window {winnr} in tab page {tabnr}. When {varname} starts with "&" get the value of a window-local option. Tabs are numbered starting with one. For the current tabpage use |getwinvar()|. When {winnr} is zero the current window is used. This also works for a global option, buffer-local option and window-local option, but it doesn't work for a global variable or buffer-local variable. When {varname} is empty a dictionary with all window-local variables is returned. Note that {varname} must be the name without "w:". Examples: :let list_is_on = gettabwinvar(1, 2, '&list') :echo "myvar = " . gettabwinvar(3, 1, 'myvar') *getwinposx()* getwinposx() The result is a Number, which is the X coordinate in pixels of the left hand side of the GUI Vim window. The result will be -1 if the information is not available. *getwinposy()* getwinposy() The result is a Number, which is the Y coordinate in pixels of the top of the GUI Vim window. The result will be -1 if the information is not available. getwinvar({winnr}, {varname}) *getwinvar()* Like |gettabwinvar()| for the current tabpage. Examples: :let list_is_on = getwinvar(2, '&list') :echo "myvar = " . getwinvar(1, 'myvar') glob({expr} [, {flag}]) *glob()* Expand the file wildcards in {expr}. See |wildcards| for the use of special characters. The result is a String. When there are several matches, they are separated by <NL> characters. Unless the optional {flag} argument is given and is non-zero, the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and 'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches. If the expansion fails, the result is an empty string. A name for a non-existing file is not included. For most systems backticks can be used to get files names from any external command. Example: :let tagfiles = glob("`find . -name tags -print`") :let &tags = substitute(tagfiles, "\n", ",", "g") The result of the program inside the backticks should be one item per line. Spaces inside an item are allowed. See |expand()| for expanding special Vim variables. See |system()| for getting the raw output of an external command. globpath({path}, {expr} [, {flag}]) *globpath()* Perform glob() on all directories in {path} and concatenate the results. Example: :echo globpath(&rtp, "syntax/c.vim") {path} is a comma-separated list of directory names. Each directory name is prepended to {expr} and expanded like with |glob()|. A path separator is inserted when needed. To add a comma inside a directory name escape it with a backslash. Note that on MS-Windows a directory may have a trailing backslash, remove it if you put a comma after it. If the expansion fails for one of the directories, there is no error message. Unless the optional {flag} argument is given and is non-zero, the 'suffixes' and 'wildignore' options apply: Names matching one of the patterns in 'wildignore' will be skipped and 'suffixes' affect the ordering of matches. The "**" item can be used to search in a directory tree. For example, to find all "README.txt" files in the directories in 'runtimepath' and below: :echo globpath(&rtp, "**/README.txt") Upwards search and limiting the depth of "**" is not supported, thus using 'path' will not always work properly. *has()* has({feature}) The result is a Number, which is 1 if the feature {feature} is supported, zero otherwise. The {feature} argument is a string. See |feature-list| below. Also see |exists()|. has_key({dict}, {key}) *has_key()* The result is a Number, which is 1 if |Dictionary| {dict} has an entry with key {key}. Zero otherwise. haslocaldir() *haslocaldir()* The result is a Number, which is 1 when the current window has set a local path via |:lcd|, and 0 otherwise. hasmapto({what} [, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *hasmapto()* The result is a Number, which is 1 if there is a mapping that contains {what} in somewhere in the rhs (what it is mapped to) and this mapping exists in one of the modes indicated by {mode}. When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations instead of mappings. Don't forget to specify Insert and/or Command-line mode. Both the global mappings and the mappings local to the current buffer are checked for a match. If no matching mapping is found 0 is returned. The following characters are recognized in {mode}: n Normal mode v Visual mode o Operator-pending mode i Insert mode l Language-Argument ("r", "f", "t", etc.) c Command-line mode When {mode} is omitted, "nvo" is used. This function is useful to check if a mapping already exists to a function in a Vim script. Example: :if !hasmapto('\ABCdoit') : map <Leader>d \ABCdoit :endif This installs the mapping to "\ABCdoit" only if there isn't already a mapping to "\ABCdoit". histadd({history}, {item}) *histadd()* Add the String {item} to the history {history} which can be one of: *hist-names* "cmd" or ":" command line history "search" or "/" search pattern history "expr" or "=" typed expression history "input" or "@" input line history If {item} does already exist in the history, it will be shifted to become the newest entry. The result is a Number: 1 if the operation was successful, otherwise 0 is returned. Example: :call histadd("input", strftime("%Y %b %d")) :let date=input("Enter date: ") This function is not available in the |sandbox|. histdel({history} [, {item}]) *histdel()* Clear {history}, i.e. delete all its entries. See |hist-names| for the possible values of {history}. If the parameter {item} evaluates to a String, it is used as a regular expression. All entries matching that expression will be removed from the history (if there are any). Upper/lowercase must match, unless "\c" is used |/\c|. If {item} evaluates to a Number, it will be interpreted as an index, see |:history-indexing|. The respective entry will be removed if it exists. The result is a Number: 1 for a successful operation, otherwise 0 is returned. Examples: Clear expression register history: :call histdel("expr") Remove all entries starting with "*" from the search history: :call histdel("/", '^\*') The following three are equivalent: :call histdel("search", histnr("search")) :call histdel("search", -1) :call histdel("search", '^'.histget("search", -1).'$') To delete the last search pattern and use the last-but-one for the "n" command and 'hlsearch': :call histdel("search", -1) :let @/ = histget("search", -1) histget({history} [, {index}]) *histget()* The result is a String, the entry with Number {index} from {history}. See |hist-names| for the possible values of {history}, and |:history-indexing| for {index}. If there is no such entry, an empty String is returned. When {index} is omitted, the most recent item from the history is used. Examples: Redo the second last search from history. :execute '/' . histget("search", -2) Define an Ex command ":H {num}" that supports re-execution of the {num}th entry from the output of |:history|. :command -nargs=1 H execute histget("cmd", 0+<args>) histnr({history}) *histnr()* The result is the Number of the current entry in {history}. See |hist-names| for the possible values of {history}. If an error occurred, -1 is returned. Example: :let inp_index = histnr("expr") hlexists({name}) *hlexists()* The result is a Number, which is non-zero if a highlight group called {name} exists. This is when the group has been defined in some way. Not necessarily when highlighting has been defined for it, it may also have been used for a syntax item. *highlight_exists()* Obsolete name: highlight_exists(). *hlID()* hlID({name}) The result is a Number, which is the ID of the highlight group with name {name}. When the highlight group doesn't exist, zero is returned. This can be used to retrieve information about the highlight group. For example, to get the background color of the "Comment" group: :echo synIDattr(synIDtrans(hlID("Comment")), "bg") *highlightID()* Obsolete name: highlightID(). hostname() *hostname()* The result is a String, which is the name of the machine on which Vim is currently running. Machine names greater than 256 characters long are truncated. iconv({expr}, {from}, {to}) *iconv()* The result is a String, which is the text {expr} converted from encoding {from} to encoding {to}. When the conversion fails an empty string is returned. The encoding names are whatever the iconv() library function can accept, see ":!man 3 iconv". Most conversions require Vim to be compiled with the |+iconv| feature. Otherwise only UTF-8 to latin1 conversion and back can be done. This can be used to display messages with special characters, no matter what 'encoding' is set to. Write the message in UTF-8 and use: echo iconv(utf8_str, "utf-8", &enc) Note that Vim uses UTF-8 for all Unicode encodings, conversion from/to UCS-2 is automatically changed to use UTF-8. You cannot use UCS-2 in a string anyway, because of the NUL bytes. {only available when compiled with the +multi_byte feature} *indent()* indent({lnum}) The result is a Number, which is indent of line {lnum} in the current buffer. The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|. When {lnum} is invalid -1 is returned. index({list}, {expr} [, {start} [, {ic}]]) *index()* Return the lowest index in |List| {list} where the item has a value equal to {expr}. If {start} is given then start looking at the item with index {start} (may be negative for an item relative to the end). When {ic} is given and it is non-zero, ignore case. Otherwise case must match. -1 is returned when {expr} is not found in {list}. Example: :let idx = index(words, "the") :if index(numbers, 123) >= 0 input({prompt} [, {text} [, {completion}]]) *input()* The result is a String, which is whatever the user typed on the command-line. The parameter is either a prompt string, or a blank string (for no prompt). A '\n' can be used in the prompt to start a new line. The highlighting set with |:echohl| is used for the prompt. The input is entered just like a command-line, with the same editing commands and mappings. There is a separate history for lines typed for input(). Example: :if input("Coffee or beer? ") == "beer" : echo "Cheers!" :endif If the optional {text} is present and not empty, this is used for the default reply, as if the user typed this. Example: :let color = input("Color? ", "white") The optional {completion} argument specifies the type of completion supported for the input. Without it completion is not performed. The supported completion types are the same as that can be supplied to a user-defined command using the "-complete=" argument. Refer to |:command-completion| for more information. Example: let fname = input("File: ", "", "file") NOTE: This function must not be used in a startup file, for the versions that only run in GUI mode (e.g., the Win32 GUI). Note: When input() is called from within a mapping it will consume remaining characters from that mapping, because a mapping is handled like the characters were typed. Use |inputsave()| before input() and |inputrestore()| after input() to avoid that. Another solution is to avoid that further characters follow in the mapping, e.g., by using |:execute| or |:normal|. Example with a mapping: :nmap \x :call GetFoo()<CR>:exe "/" . Foo<CR> :function GetFoo() : call inputsave() : let g:Foo = input("enter search pattern: ") : call inputrestore() :endfunction inputdialog({prompt} [, {text} [, {cancelreturn}]]) *inputdialog()* Like input(), but when the GUI is running and text dialogs are supported, a dialog window pops up to input the text. Example: :let n = inputdialog("value for shiftwidth", &sw) :if n != "" : let &sw = n :endif When the dialog is cancelled {cancelreturn} is returned. When omitted an empty string is returned. Hitting <Enter> works like pressing the OK button. Hitting <Esc> works like pressing the Cancel button. NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported. inputlist({textlist}) *inputlist()* {textlist} must be a |List| of strings. This |List| is displayed, one string per line. The user will be prompted to enter a number, which is returned. The user can also select an item by clicking on it with the mouse. For the first string 0 is returned. When clicking above the first item a negative number is returned. When clicking on the prompt one more than the length of {textlist} is returned. Make sure {textlist} has less then 'lines' entries, otherwise it won't work. It's a good idea to put the entry number at the start of the string. And put a prompt in the first item. Example: let color = inputlist(['Select color:', '1. red', \ '2. green', '3. blue']) inputrestore() *inputrestore()* Restore typeahead that was saved with a previous inputsave(). Should be called the same number of times inputsave() is called. Calling it more often is harmless though. Returns 1 when there is nothing to restore, 0 otherwise. inputsave() *inputsave()* Preserve typeahead (also from mappings) and clear it, so that a following prompt gets input from the user. Should be followed by a matching inputrestore() after the prompt. Can be used several times, in which case there must be just as many inputrestore() calls. Returns 1 when out of memory, 0 otherwise. inputsecret({prompt} [, {text}]) *inputsecret()* This function acts much like the |input()| function with but two exceptions: a) the user's response will be displayed as a sequence of asterisks ("*") thereby keeping the entry secret, and b) the user's response will not be recorded on the input |history| stack. The result is a String, which is whatever the user actually typed on the command-line in response to the issued prompt. NOTE: Command-line completion is not supported. insert({list}, {item} [, {idx}]) *insert()* Insert {item} at the start of |List| {list}. If {idx} is specified insert {item} before the item with index {idx}. If {idx} is zero it goes before the first item, just like omitting {idx}. A negative {idx} is also possible, see |list-index|. -1 inserts just before the last item. Returns the resulting |List|. Examples: :let mylist = insert([2, 3, 5], 1) :call insert(mylist, 4, -1) :call insert(mylist, 6, len(mylist)) The last example can be done simpler with |add()|. Note that when {item} is a |List| it is inserted as a single item. Use |extend()| to concatenate |Lists|. isdirectory({directory}) *isdirectory()* The result is a Number, which is non-zero when a directory with the name {directory} exists. If {directory} doesn't exist, or isn't a directory, the result is FALSE. {directory} is any expression, which is used as a String. islocked({expr}) *islocked()* *E786* The result is a Number, which is non-zero when {expr} is the name of a locked variable. {expr} must be the name of a variable, |List| item or |Dictionary| entry, not the variable itself! Example: :let alist = [0, ['a', 'b'], 2, 3] :lockvar 1 alist :echo islocked('alist') " 1 :echo islocked('alist[1]') " 0 When {expr} is a variable that does not exist you get an error message. Use |exists()| to check for existence. items({dict}) *items()* Return a |List| with all the key-value pairs of {dict}. Each |List| item is a list with two items: the key of a {dict} entry and the value of this entry. The |List| is in arbitrary order. join({list} [, {sep}]) *join()* Join the items in {list} together into one String. When {sep} is specified it is put in between the items. If {sep} is omitted a single space is used. Note that {sep} is not added at the end. You might want to add it there too: let lines = join(mylist, "\n") . "\n" String items are used as-is. |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are converted into a string like with |string()|. The opposite function is |split()|. keys({dict}) *keys()* Return a |List| with all the keys of {dict}. The |List| is in arbitrary order. *len()* *E701* len({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the length of the argument. When {expr} is a String or a Number the length in bytes is used, as with |strlen()|. When {expr} is a |List| the number of items in the |List| is returned. When {expr} is a |Dictionary| the number of entries in the |Dictionary| is returned. Otherwise an error is given. *libcall()* *E364* *E368* libcall({libname}, {funcname}, {argument}) Call function {funcname} in the run-time library {libname} with single argument {argument}. This is useful to call functions in a library that you especially made to be used with Vim. Since only one argument is possible, calling standard library functions is rather limited. The result is the String returned by the function. If the function returns NULL, this will appear as an empty string "" to Vim. If the function returns a number, use libcallnr()! If {argument} is a number, it is passed to the function as an int; if {argument} is a string, it is passed as a null-terminated string. This function will fail in |restricted-mode|. libcall() allows you to write your own 'plug-in' extensions to Vim without having to recompile the program. It is NOT a means to call system functions! If you try to do so Vim will very probably crash. For Win32, the functions you write must be placed in a DLL and use the normal C calling convention (NOT Pascal which is used in Windows System DLLs). The function must take exactly one parameter, either a character pointer or a long integer, and must return a character pointer or NULL. The character pointer returned must point to memory that will remain valid after the function has returned (e.g. in static data in the DLL). If it points to allocated memory, that memory will leak away. Using a static buffer in the function should work, it's then freed when the DLL is unloaded. WARNING: If the function returns a non-valid pointer, Vim may crash! This also happens if the function returns a number, because Vim thinks it's a pointer. For Win32 systems, {libname} should be the filename of the DLL without the ".DLL" suffix. A full path is only required if the DLL is not in the usual places. For Unix: When compiling your own plugins, remember that the object code must be compiled as position-independent ('PIC'). {only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the |+libcall| feature is present} Examples: :echo libcall("libc.so", "getenv", "HOME") *libcallnr()* libcallnr({libname}, {funcname}, {argument}) Just like libcall(), but used for a function that returns an int instead of a string. {only in Win32 on some Unix versions, when the |+libcall| feature is present} Examples: :echo libcallnr("/usr/lib/libc.so", "getpid", "") :call libcallnr("libc.so", "printf", "Hello World!\n") :call libcallnr("libc.so", "sleep", 10) *line()* line({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the line number of the file position given with {expr}. The accepted positions are: . the cursor position $ the last line in the current buffer 'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is returned) w0 first line visible in current window w$ last line visible in current window v In Visual mode: the start of the Visual area (the cursor is the end). When not in Visual mode returns the cursor position. Differs from |'<| in that it's updated right away. Note that a mark in another file can be used. The line number then applies to another buffer. To get the column number use |col()|. To get both use |getpos()|. Examples: line(".") line number of the cursor line("'t") line number of mark t line("'" . marker) line number of mark marker *last-position-jump* This autocommand jumps to the last known position in a file just after opening it, if the '"' mark is set: :au BufReadPost * if line("'\"") > 1 && line("'\"") <= line("$") | exe "normal! g'\"" | endif line2byte({lnum}) *line2byte()* Return the byte count from the start of the buffer for line {lnum}. This includes the end-of-line character, depending on the 'fileformat' option for the current buffer. The first line returns 1. This can also be used to get the byte count for the line just below the last line: line2byte(line("$") + 1) This is the file size plus one. When {lnum} is invalid, or the |+byte_offset| feature has been disabled at compile time, -1 is returned. Also see |byte2line()|, |go| and |:goto|. lispindent({lnum}) *lispindent()* Get the amount of indent for line {lnum} according the lisp indenting rules, as with 'lisp'. The indent is counted in spaces, the value of 'tabstop' is relevant. {lnum} is used just like in |getline()|. When {lnum} is invalid or Vim was not compiled the |+lispindent| feature, -1 is returned. localtime() *localtime()* Return the current time, measured as seconds since 1st Jan 1970. See also |strftime()| and |getftime()|. log10({expr}) *log10()* Return the logarithm of Float {expr} to base 10 as a |Float|. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: :echo log10(1000) 3.0 :echo log10(0.01) -2.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} map({expr}, {string}) *map()* {expr} must be a |List| or a |Dictionary|. Replace each item in {expr} with the result of evaluating {string}. Inside {string} |v:val| has the value of the current item. For a |Dictionary| |v:key| has the key of the current item. Example: :call map(mylist, '"> " . v:val . " <"') This puts "> " before and " <" after each item in "mylist". Note that {string} is the result of an expression and is then used as an expression again. Often it is good to use a |literal-string| to avoid having to double backslashes. You still have to double '' quotes The operation is done in-place. If you want a |List| or |Dictionary| to remain unmodified make a copy first: :let tlist = map(copy(mylist), ' & . "\t"') Returns {expr}, the |List| or |Dictionary| that was filtered. When an error is encountered while evaluating {string} no further items in {expr} are processed. maparg({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *maparg()* Return the rhs of mapping {name} in mode {mode}. When there is no mapping for {name}, an empty String is returned. {mode} can be one of these strings: "n" Normal "v" Visual "o" Operator-pending "i" Insert "c" Cmd-line "l" langmap |language-mapping| "" Normal, Visual and Operator-pending When {mode} is omitted, the modes for "" are used. When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations instead of mappings. The {name} can have special key names, like in the ":map" command. The returned String has special characters translated like in the output of the ":map" command listing. The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first, then the global mappings. This function can be used to map a key even when it's already mapped, and have it do the original mapping too. Sketch: exe 'nnoremap <Tab> ==' . maparg('<Tab>', 'n') mapcheck({name}[, {mode} [, {abbr}]]) *mapcheck()* Check if there is a mapping that matches with {name} in mode {mode}. See |maparg()| for {mode} and special names in {name}. When {abbr} is there and it is non-zero use abbreviations instead of mappings. A match happens with a mapping that starts with {name} and with a mapping which is equal to the start of {name}. matches mapping "a" "ab" "abc" mapcheck("a") yes yes yes mapcheck("abc") yes yes yes mapcheck("ax") yes no no mapcheck("b") no no no The difference with maparg() is that mapcheck() finds a mapping that matches with {name}, while maparg() only finds a mapping for {name} exactly. When there is no mapping that starts with {name}, an empty String is returned. If there is one, the rhs of that mapping is returned. If there are several mappings that start with {name}, the rhs of one of them is returned. The mappings local to the current buffer are checked first, then the global mappings. This function can be used to check if a mapping can be added without being ambiguous. Example: :if mapcheck("_vv") == "" : map _vv :set guifont=7x13<CR> :endif This avoids adding the "_vv" mapping when there already is a mapping for "_v" or for "_vvv". match({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *match()* When {expr} is a |List| then this returns the index of the first item where {pat} matches. Each item is used as a String, |Lists| and |Dictionaries| are used as echoed. Otherwise, {expr} is used as a String. The result is a Number, which gives the index (byte offset) in {expr} where {pat} matches. A match at the first character or |List| item returns zero. If there is no match -1 is returned. Example: :echo match("testing", "ing") " results in 4 :echo match([1, 'x'], '\a') " results in 1 See |string-match| for how {pat} is used. *strpbrk()* Vim doesn't have a strpbrk() function. But you can do: :let sepidx = match(line, '[.,;: \t]') *strcasestr()* Vim doesn't have a strcasestr() function. But you can add "\c" to the pattern to ignore case: :let idx = match(haystack, '\cneedle') If {start} is given, the search starts from byte index {start} in a String or item {start} in a |List|. The result, however, is still the index counted from the first character/item. Example: :echo match("testing", "ing", 2) result is again "4". :echo match("testing", "ing", 4) result is again "4". :echo match("testing", "t", 2) result is "3". For a String, if {start} > 0 then it is like the string starts {start} bytes later, thus "^" will match at {start}. Except when {count} is given, then it's like matches before the {start} byte are ignored (this is a bit complicated to keep it backwards compatible). For a String, if {start} < 0, it will be set to 0. For a list the index is counted from the end. If {start} is out of range ({start} > strlen({expr}) for a String or {start} > len({expr}) for a |List|) -1 is returned. When {count} is given use the {count}'th match. When a match is found in a String the search for the next one starts one character further. Thus this example results in 1: echo match("testing", "..", 0, 2) In a |List| the search continues in the next item. Note that when {count} is added the way {start} works changes, see above. See |pattern| for the patterns that are accepted. The 'ignorecase' option is used to set the ignore-caseness of the pattern. 'smartcase' is NOT used. The matching is always done like 'magic' is set and 'cpoptions' is empty. *matchadd()* *E798* *E799* *E801* matchadd({group}, {pattern}[, {priority}[, {id}]]) Defines a pattern to be highlighted in the current window (a "match"). It will be highlighted with {group}. Returns an identification number (ID), which can be used to delete the match using |matchdelete()|. The optional {priority} argument assigns a priority to the match. A match with a high priority will have its highlighting overrule that of a match with a lower priority. A priority is specified as an integer (negative numbers are no exception). If the {priority} argument is not specified, the default priority is 10. The priority of 'hlsearch' is zero, hence all matches with a priority greater than zero will overrule it. Syntax highlighting (see 'syntax') is a separate mechanism, and regardless of the chosen priority a match will always overrule syntax highlighting. The optional {id} argument allows the request for a specific match ID. If a specified ID is already taken, an error message will appear and the match will not be added. An ID is specified as a positive integer (zero excluded). IDs 1, 2 and 3 are reserved for |:match|, |:2match| and |:3match|, respectively. If the {id} argument is not specified, |matchadd()| automatically chooses a free ID. The number of matches is not limited, as it is the case with the |:match| commands. Example: :highlight MyGroup ctermbg=green guibg=green :let m = matchadd("MyGroup", "TODO") Deletion of the pattern: :call matchdelete(m) A list of matches defined by |matchadd()| and |:match| are available from |getmatches()|. All matches can be deleted in one operation by |clearmatches()|. matcharg({nr}) *matcharg()* Selects the {nr} match item, as set with a |:match|, |:2match| or |:3match| command. Return a |List| with two elements: The name of the highlight group used The pattern used. When {nr} is not 1, 2 or 3 returns an empty |List|. When there is no match item set returns ['', '']. This is useful to save and restore a |:match|. Highlighting matches using the |:match| commands are limited to three matches. |matchadd()| does not have this limitation. matchdelete({id}) *matchdelete()* *E802* *E803* Deletes a match with ID {id} previously defined by |matchadd()| or one of the |:match| commands. Returns 0 if successful, otherwise -1. See example for |matchadd()|. All matches can be deleted in one operation by |clearmatches()|. matchend({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchend()* Same as match(), but return the index of first character after the match. Example: :echo matchend("testing", "ing") results in "7". *strspn()* *strcspn()* Vim doesn't have a strspn() or strcspn() function, but you can do it with matchend(): :let span = matchend(line, '[a-zA-Z]') :let span = matchend(line, '[^a-zA-Z]') Except that -1 is returned when there are no matches. The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match(). :echo matchend("testing", "ing", 2) results in "7". :echo matchend("testing", "ing", 5) result is "-1". When {expr} is a |List| the result is equal to match(). matchlist({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchlist()* Same as match(), but return a |List|. The first item in the list is the matched string, same as what matchstr() would return. Following items are submatches, like "\1", "\2", etc. in |:substitute|. When an optional submatch didn't match an empty string is used. Example: echo matchlist('acd', '\(a\)\?\(b\)\?\(c\)\?\(.*\)') Results in: ['acd', 'a', '', 'c', 'd', '', '', '', '', ''] When there is no match an empty list is returned. matchstr({expr}, {pat}[, {start}[, {count}]]) *matchstr()* Same as |match()|, but return the matched string. Example: :echo matchstr("testing", "ing") results in "ing". When there is no match "" is returned. The {start}, if given, has the same meaning as for match(). :echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 2) results in "ing". :echo matchstr("testing", "ing", 5) result is "". When {expr} is a |List| then the matching item is returned. The type isn't changed, it's not necessarily a String. *max()* max({list}) Return the maximum value of all items in {list}. If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot be used as a Number this results in an error. An empty |List| results in zero. *min()* min({list}) Return the minimum value of all items in {list}. If {list} is not a list or one of the items in {list} cannot be used as a Number this results in an error. An empty |List| results in zero. *mkdir()* *E739* mkdir({name} [, {path} [, {prot}]]) Create directory {name}. If {path} is "p" then intermediate directories are created as necessary. Otherwise it must be "". If {prot} is given it is used to set the protection bits of the new directory. The default is 0755 (rwxr-xr-x: r/w for the user readable for others). Use 0700 to make it unreadable for others. This is only used for the last part of {name}. Thus if you create /tmp/foo/bar then /tmp/foo will be created with 0755. Example: :call mkdir($HOME . "/tmp/foo/bar", "p", 0700) This function is not available in the |sandbox|. Not available on all systems. To check use: :if exists("*mkdir") *mode()* mode([expr]) Return a string that indicates the current mode. If [expr] is supplied and it evaluates to a non-zero Number or a non-empty String (|non-zero-arg|), then the full mode is returned, otherwise only the first letter is returned. Note that " " and "0" are also non-empty strings. n Normal no Operator-pending v Visual by character V Visual by line CTRL-V Visual blockwise s Select by character S Select by line CTRL-S Select blockwise i Insert R Replace |R| Rv Virtual Replace |gR| c Command-line cv Vim Ex mode |gQ| ce Normal Ex mode |Q| r Hit-enter prompt rm The -- more -- prompt r? A |:confirm| query of some sort ! Shell or external command is executing This is useful in the 'statusline' option or when used with |remote_expr()| In most other places it always returns "c" or "n". Also see |visualmode()|. nextnonblank({lnum}) *nextnonblank()* Return the line number of the first line at or below {lnum} that is not blank. Example: if getline(nextnonblank(1)) =~ "Java" When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or below it, zero is returned. See also |prevnonblank()|. nr2char({expr}) *nr2char()* Return a string with a single character, which has the number value {expr}. Examples: nr2char(64) returns "@" nr2char(32) returns " " The current 'encoding' is used. Example for "utf-8": nr2char(300) returns I with bow character Note that a NUL character in the file is specified with nr2char(10), because NULs are represented with newline characters. nr2char(0) is a real NUL and terminates the string, thus results in an empty string. *getpid()* getpid() Return a Number which is the process ID of the Vim process. On Unix and MS-Windows this is a unique number, until Vim exits. On MS-DOS it's always zero. *getpos()* getpos({expr}) Get the position for {expr}. For possible values of {expr} see |line()|. The result is a |List| with four numbers: [bufnum, lnum, col, off] "bufnum" is zero, unless a mark like '0 or 'A is used, then it is the buffer number of the mark. "lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer. The first column is 1. The "off" number is zero, unless 'virtualedit' is used. Then it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last character. This can be used to save and restore the cursor position: let save_cursor = getpos(".") MoveTheCursorAround call setpos('.', save_cursor) Also see |setpos()|. pathshorten({expr}) *pathshorten()* Shorten directory names in the path {expr} and return the result. The tail, the file name, is kept as-is. The other components in the path are reduced to single letters. Leading '~' and '.' characters are kept. Example: :echo pathshorten('~/.vim/autoload/myfile.vim') ~/.v/a/myfile.vim It doesn't matter if the path exists or not. pow({x}, {y}) *pow()* Return the power of {x} to the exponent {y} as a |Float|. {x} and {y} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: :echo pow(3, 3) 27.0 :echo pow(2, 16) 65536.0 :echo pow(32, 0.20) 2.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} prevnonblank({lnum}) *prevnonblank()* Return the line number of the first line at or above {lnum} that is not blank. Example: let ind = indent(prevnonblank(v:lnum - 1)) When {lnum} is invalid or there is no non-blank line at or above it, zero is returned. Also see |nextnonblank()|. printf({fmt}, {expr1} ...) *printf()* Return a String with {fmt}, where "%" items are replaced by the formatted form of their respective arguments. Example: printf("%4d: E%d %.30s", lnum, errno, msg) May result in: " 99: E42 asdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfasdfas" Often used items are: %s string %6s string right-aligned in 6 bytes %.9s string truncated to 9 bytes %c single byte %d decimal number %5d decimal number padded with spaces to 5 characters %x hex number %04x hex number padded with zeros to at least 4 characters %X hex number using upper case letters %o octal number %f floating point number in the form 123.456 %e floating point number in the form 1.234e3 %E floating point number in the form 1.234E3 %g floating point number, as %f or %e depending on value %G floating point number, as %f or %E depending on value %% the % character itself Conversion specifications start with '%' and end with the conversion type. All other characters are copied unchanged to the result. The "%" starts a conversion specification. The following arguments appear in sequence: % [flags] [field-width] [.precision] type flags Zero or more of the following flags: # The value should be converted to an "alternate form". For c, d, and s conversions, this option has no effect. For o conversions, the precision of the number is increased to force the first character of the output string to a zero (except if a zero value is printed with an explicit precision of zero). For x and X conversions, a non-zero result has the string "0x" (or "0X" for X conversions) prepended to it. 0 (zero) Zero padding. For all conversions the converted value is padded on the left with zeros rather than blanks. If a precision is given with a numeric conversion (d, o, x, and X), the 0 flag is ignored. - A negative field width flag; the converted value is to be left adjusted on the field boundary. The converted value is padded on the right with blanks, rather than on the left with blanks or zeros. A - overrides a 0 if both are given. '' '' (space) A blank should be left before a positive number produced by a signed conversion (d). + A sign must always be placed before a number produced by a signed conversion. A + overrides a space if both are used. field-width An optional decimal digit string specifying a minimum field width. If the converted value has fewer bytes than the field width, it will be padded with spaces on the left (or right, if the left-adjustment flag has been given) to fill out the field width. .precision An optional precision, in the form of a period '.' followed by an optional digit string. If the digit string is omitted, the precision is taken as zero. This gives the minimum number of digits to appear for d, o, x, and X conversions, or the maximum number of bytes to be printed from a string for s conversions. For floating point it is the number of digits after the decimal point. type A character that specifies the type of conversion to be applied, see below. A field width or precision, or both, may be indicated by an asterisk '*' instead of a digit string. In this case, a Number argument supplies the field width or precision. A negative field width is treated as a left adjustment flag followed by a positive field width; a negative precision is treated as though it were missing. Example: :echo printf("%d: %.*s", nr, width, line) This limits the length of the text used from "line" to "width" bytes. The conversion specifiers and their meanings are: *printf-d* *printf-o* *printf-x* *printf-X* doxX The Number argument is converted to signed decimal (d), unsigned octal (o), or unsigned hexadecimal (x and X) notation. The letters "abcdef" are used for x conversions; the letters "ABCDEF" are used for X conversions. The precision, if any, gives the minimum number of digits that must appear; if the converted value requires fewer digits, it is padded on the left with zeros. In no case does a non-existent or small field width cause truncation of a numeric field; if the result of a conversion is wider than the field width, the field is expanded to contain the conversion result. *printf-c* c The Number argument is converted to a byte, and the resulting character is written. *printf-s* s The text of the String argument is used. If a precision is specified, no more bytes than the number specified are used. *printf-f* *E807* f The Float argument is converted into a string of the form 123.456. The precision specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. When the precision is zero the decimal point is omitted. When the precision is not specified 6 is used. A really big number (out of range or dividing by zero) results in "inf". "0.0 / 0.0" results in "nan". Example: echo printf("%.2f", 12.115) 12.12 Note that roundoff depends on the system libraries. Use |round()| when in doubt. *printf-e* *printf-E* e E The Float argument is converted into a string of the form 1.234e+03 or 1.234E+03 when using 'E'. The precision specifies the number of digits after the decimal point, like with 'f'. *printf-g* *printf-G* g G The Float argument is converted like with 'f' if the value is between 0.001 (inclusive) and 10000000.0 (exclusive). Otherwise 'e' is used for 'g' and 'E' for 'G'. When no precision is specified superfluous zeroes and '+' signs are removed, except for the zero immediately after the decimal point. Thus 10000000.0 results in 1.0e7. *printf-%* % A '%' is written. No argument is converted. The complete conversion specification is "%%". When a Number argument is expected a String argument is also accepted and automatically converted. When a Float or String argument is expected a Number argument is also accepted and automatically converted. Any other argument type results in an error message. *E766* *E767* The number of {exprN} arguments must exactly match the number of "%" items. If there are not sufficient or too many arguments an error is given. Up to 18 arguments can be used. pumvisible() *pumvisible()* Returns non-zero when the popup menu is visible, zero otherwise. See |ins-completion-menu|. This can be used to avoid some things that would remove the popup menu. *E726* *E727* range({expr} [, {max} [, {stride}]]) *range()* Returns a |List| with Numbers: - If only {expr} is specified: [0, 1, ..., {expr} - 1] - If {max} is specified: [{expr}, {expr} + 1, ..., {max}] - If {stride} is specified: [{expr}, {expr} + {stride}, ..., {max}] (increasing {expr} with {stride} each time, not producing a value past {max}). When the maximum is one before the start the result is an empty list. When the maximum is more than one before the start this is an error. Examples: range(4) " [0, 1, 2, 3] range(2, 4) " [2, 3, 4] range(2, 9, 3) " [2, 5, 8] range(2, -2, -1) " [2, 1, 0, -1, -2] range(0) " [] range(2, 0) " error! *readfile()* readfile({fname} [, {binary} [, {max}]]) Read file {fname} and return a |List|, each line of the file as an item. Lines broken at NL characters. Macintosh files separated with CR will result in a single long line (unless a NL appears somewhere). When {binary} is equal to "b" binary mode is used: - When the last line ends in a NL an extra empty list item is added. - No CR characters are removed. Otherwise: - CR characters that appear before a NL are removed. - Whether the last line ends in a NL or not does not matter. All NUL characters are replaced with a NL character. When {max} is given this specifies the maximum number of lines to be read. Useful if you only want to check the first ten lines of a file: :for line in readfile(fname, '', 10) : if line =~ 'Date' | echo line | endif :endfor When {max} is negative -{max} lines from the end of the file are returned, or as many as there are. When {max} is zero the result is an empty list. Note that without {max} the whole file is read into memory. Also note that there is no recognition of encoding. Read a file into a buffer if you need to. When the file can't be opened an error message is given and the result is an empty list. Also see |writefile()|. reltime([{start} [, {end}]]) *reltime()* Return an item that represents a time value. The format of the item depends on the system. It can be passed to |reltimestr()| to convert it to a string. Without an argument it returns the current time. With one argument is returns the time passed since the time specified in the argument. With two arguments it returns the time passed between {start} and {end}. The {start} and {end} arguments must be values returned by reltime(). {only available when compiled with the +reltime feature} reltimestr({time}) *reltimestr()* Return a String that represents the time value of {time}. This is the number of seconds, a dot and the number of microseconds. Example: let start = reltime() call MyFunction() echo reltimestr(reltime(start)) Note that overhead for the commands will be added to the time. The accuracy depends on the system. Leading spaces are used to make the string align nicely. You can use split() to remove it. echo split(reltimestr(reltime(start)))[0] Also see |profiling|. {only available when compiled with the +reltime feature} *remote_expr()* *E449* remote_expr({server}, {string} [, {idvar}]) Send the {string} to {server}. The string is sent as an expression and the result is returned after evaluation. The result must be a String or a |List|. A |List| is turned into a String by joining the items with a line break in between (not at the end), like with join(expr, "\n"). If {idvar} is present, it is taken as the name of a variable and a {serverid} for later use with remote_read() is stored there. See also |clientserver| |RemoteReply|. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Note: Any errors will cause a local error message to be issued and the result will be the empty string. Examples: :echo remote_expr("gvim", "2+2") :echo remote_expr("gvim1", "b:current_syntax") remote_foreground({server}) *remote_foreground()* Move the Vim server with the name {server} to the foreground. This works like: remote_expr({server}, "foreground()") Except that on Win32 systems the client does the work, to work around the problem that the OS doesn't always allow the server to bring itself to the foreground. Note: This does not restore the window if it was minimized, like foreground() does. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. {only in the Win32, Athena, Motif and GTK GUI versions and the Win32 console version} remote_peek({serverid} [, {retvar}]) *remote_peek()* Returns a positive number if there are available strings from {serverid}. Copies any reply string into the variable {retvar} if specified. {retvar} must be a string with the name of a variable. Returns zero if none are available. Returns -1 if something is wrong. See also |clientserver|. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Examples: :let repl = "" :echo "PEEK: ".remote_peek(id, "repl").": ".repl remote_read({serverid}) *remote_read()* Return the oldest available reply from {serverid} and consume it. It blocks until a reply is available. See also |clientserver|. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Example: :echo remote_read(id) *remote_send()* *E241* remote_send({server}, {string} [, {idvar}]) Send the {string} to {server}. The string is sent as input keys and the function returns immediately. At the Vim server the keys are not mapped |:map|. If {idvar} is present, it is taken as the name of a variable and a {serverid} for later use with remote_read() is stored there. See also |clientserver| |RemoteReply|. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Note: Any errors will be reported in the server and may mess up the display. Examples: :echo remote_send("gvim", ":DropAndReply ".file, "serverid"). \ remote_read(serverid) :autocmd NONE RemoteReply * \ echo remote_read(expand("<amatch>")) :echo remote_send("gvim", ":sleep 10 | echo ". \ 'server2client(expand("<client>"), "HELLO")<CR>') remove({list}, {idx} [, {end}]) *remove()* Without {end}: Remove the item at {idx} from |List| {list} and return it. With {end}: Remove items from {idx} to {end} (inclusive) and return a list with these items. When {idx} points to the same item as {end} a list with one item is returned. When {end} points to an item before {idx} this is an error. See |list-index| for possible values of {idx} and {end}. Example: :echo "last item: " . remove(mylist, -1) :call remove(mylist, 0, 9) remove({dict}, {key}) Remove the entry from {dict} with key {key}. Example: :echo "removed " . remove(dict, "one") If there is no {key} in {dict} this is an error. Use |delete()| to remove a file. rename({from}, {to}) *rename()* Rename the file by the name {from} to the name {to}. This should also work to move files across file systems. The result is a Number, which is 0 if the file was renamed successfully, and non-zero when the renaming failed. NOTE: If {to} exists it is overwritten without warning. This function is not available in the |sandbox|. repeat({expr}, {count}) *repeat()* Repeat {expr} {count} times and return the concatenated result. Example: :let separator = repeat('-', 80) When {count} is zero or negative the result is empty. When {expr} is a |List| the result is {expr} concatenated {count} times. Example: :let longlist = repeat(['a', 'b'], 3) Results in ['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'a', 'b']. resolve({filename}) *resolve()* *E655* On MS-Windows, when {filename} is a shortcut (a .lnk file), returns the path the shortcut points to in a simplified form. On Unix, repeat resolving symbolic links in all path components of {filename} and return the simplified result. To cope with link cycles, resolving of symbolic links is stopped after 100 iterations. On other systems, return the simplified {filename}. The simplification step is done as by |simplify()|. resolve() keeps a leading path component specifying the current directory (provided the result is still a relative path name) and also keeps a trailing path separator. *reverse()* reverse({list}) Reverse the order of items in {list} in-place. Returns {list}. If you want a list to remain unmodified make a copy first: :let revlist = reverse(copy(mylist)) round({expr}) *round()* Round off {expr} to the nearest integral value and return it as a |Float|. If {expr} lies halfway between two integral values, then use the larger one (away from zero). {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: echo round(0.456) 0.0 echo round(4.5) 5.0 echo round(-4.5) -5.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} search({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]) *search()* Search for regexp pattern {pattern}. The search starts at the cursor position (you can use |cursor()| to set it). {flags} is a String, which can contain these character flags: 'b' search backward instead of forward 'c' accept a match at the cursor position 'e' move to the End of the match 'n' do Not move the cursor 'p' return number of matching sub-pattern (see below) 's' set the '' mark at the previous location of the cursor 'w' wrap around the end of the file 'W' don't wrap around the end of the file If neither 'w' or 'W' is given, the 'wrapscan' option applies. If the 's' flag is supplied, the '' mark is set, only if the cursor is moved. The 's' flag cannot be combined with the 'n' flag. 'ignorecase', 'smartcase' and 'magic' are used. When the {stopline} argument is given then the search stops after searching this line. This is useful to restrict the search to a range of lines. Examples: let match = search('(', 'b', line("w0")) let end = search('END', '', line("w$")) When {stopline} is used and it is not zero this also implies that the search does not wrap around the end of the file. A zero value is equal to not giving the argument. When the {timeout} argument is given the search stops when more than this many milli seconds have passed. Thus when {timeout} is 500 the search stops after half a second. The value must not be negative. A zero value is like not giving the argument. {only available when compiled with the +reltime feature} If there is no match a 0 is returned and the cursor doesn't move. No error message is given. When a match has been found its line number is returned. *search()-sub-match* With the 'p' flag the returned value is one more than the first sub-match in \(\). One if none of them matched but the whole pattern did match. To get the column number too use |searchpos()|. The cursor will be positioned at the match, unless the 'n' flag is used. Example (goes over all files in the argument list): :let n = 1 :while n <= argc() " loop over all files in arglist : exe "argument " . n : " start at the last char in the file and wrap for the : " first search to find match at start of file : normal G$ : let flags = "w" : while search("foo", flags) > 0 : s/foo/bar/g : let flags = "W" : endwhile : update " write the file if modified : let n = n + 1 :endwhile Example for using some flags: :echo search('\<if\|\(else\)\|\(endif\)', 'ncpe') This will search for the keywords "if", "else", and "endif" under or after the cursor. Because of the 'p' flag, it returns 1, 2, or 3 depending on which keyword is found, or 0 if the search fails. With the cursor on the first word of the line: if (foo == 0) | let foo = foo + 1 | endif the function returns 1. Without the 'c' flag, the function finds the "endif" and returns 3. The same thing happens without the 'e' flag if the cursor is on the "f" of "if". The 'n' flag tells the function not to move the cursor. searchdecl({name} [, {global} [, {thisblock}]]) *searchdecl()* Search for the declaration of {name}. With a non-zero {global} argument it works like |gD|, find first match in the file. Otherwise it works like |gd|, find first match in the function. With a non-zero {thisblock} argument matches in a {} block that ends before the cursor position are ignored. Avoids finding variable declarations only valid in another scope. Moves the cursor to the found match. Returns zero for success, non-zero for failure. Example: if searchdecl('myvar') == 0 echo getline('.') endif *searchpair()* searchpair({start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]]) Search for the match of a nested start-end pair. This can be used to find the "endif" that matches an "if", while other if/endif pairs in between are ignored. The search starts at the cursor. The default is to search forward, include 'b' in {flags} to search backward. If a match is found, the cursor is positioned at it and the line number is returned. If no match is found 0 or -1 is returned and the cursor doesn't move. No error message is given. {start}, {middle} and {end} are patterns, see |pattern|. They must not contain \( \) pairs. Use of \%( \) is allowed. When {middle} is not empty, it is found when searching from either direction, but only when not in a nested start-end pair. A typical use is: searchpair('\<if\>', '\<else\>', '\<endif\>') By leaving {middle} empty the "else" is skipped. {flags} 'b', 'c', 'n', 's', 'w' and 'W' are used like with |search()|. Additionally: 'r' Repeat until no more matches found; will find the outer pair. Implies the 'W' flag. 'm' Return number of matches instead of line number with the match; will be > 1 when 'r' is used. Note: it's nearly always a good idea to use the 'W' flag, to avoid wrapping around the end of the file. When a match for {start}, {middle} or {end} is found, the {skip} expression is evaluated with the cursor positioned on the start of the match. It should return non-zero if this match is to be skipped. E.g., because it is inside a comment or a string. When {skip} is omitted or empty, every match is accepted. When evaluating {skip} causes an error the search is aborted and -1 returned. For {stopline} and {timeout} see |search()|. The value of 'ignorecase' is used. 'magic' is ignored, the patterns are used like it's on. The search starts exactly at the cursor. A match with {start}, {middle} or {end} at the next character, in the direction of searching, is the first one found. Example: if 1 if 2 endif 2 endif 1 When starting at the "if 2", with the cursor on the "i", and searching forwards, the "endif 2" is found. When starting on the character just before the "if 2", the "endif 1" will be found. That's because the "if 2" will be found first, and then this is considered to be a nested if/endif from "if 2" to "endif 2". When searching backwards and {end} is more than one character, it may be useful to put "\zs" at the end of the pattern, so that when the cursor is inside a match with the end it finds the matching start. Example, to find the "endif" command in a Vim script: :echo searchpair('\<if\>', '\<el\%[seif]\>', '\<en\%[dif]\>', 'W', \ 'getline(".") =~ "^\\s*\""') The cursor must be at or after the "if" for which a match is to be found. Note that single-quote strings are used to avoid having to double the backslashes. The skip expression only catches comments at the start of a line, not after a command. Also, a word "en" or "if" halfway a line is considered a match. Another example, to search for the matching "{" of a "}": :echo searchpair('{', '', '}', 'bW') This works when the cursor is at or before the "}" for which a match is to be found. To reject matches that syntax highlighting recognized as strings: :echo searchpair('{', '', '}', 'bW', \ 'synIDattr(synID(line("."), col("."), 0), "name") =~? "string"') *searchpairpos()* searchpairpos({start}, {middle}, {end} [, {flags} [, {skip} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]]) Same as searchpair(), but returns a |List| with the line and column position of the match. The first element of the |List| is the line number and the second element is the byte index of the column position of the match. If no match is found, returns [0, 0]. :let [lnum,col] = searchpairpos('{', '', '}', 'n') See |match-parens| for a bigger and more useful example. searchpos({pattern} [, {flags} [, {stopline} [, {timeout}]]]) *searchpos()* Same as |search()|, but returns a |List| with the line and column position of the match. The first element of the |List| is the line number and the second element is the byte index of the column position of the match. If no match is found, returns [0, 0]. Example: :let [lnum, col] = searchpos('mypattern', 'n') When the 'p' flag is given then there is an extra item with the sub-pattern match number |search()-sub-match|. Example: :let [lnum, col, submatch] = searchpos('\(\l\)\|\(\u\)', 'np') In this example "submatch" is 2 when a lowercase letter is found |/\l|, 3 when an uppercase letter is found |/\u|. server2client( {clientid}, {string}) *server2client()* Send a reply string to {clientid}. The most recent {clientid} that sent a string can be retrieved with expand("<client>"). {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Note: This id has to be stored before the next command can be received. I.e. before returning from the received command and before calling any commands that waits for input. See also |clientserver|. Example: :echo server2client(expand("<client>"), "HELLO") serverlist() *serverlist()* Return a list of available server names, one per line. When there are no servers or the information is not available an empty string is returned. See also |clientserver|. {only available when compiled with the |+clientserver| feature} Example: :echo serverlist() setbufvar({expr}, {varname}, {val}) *setbufvar()* Set option or local variable {varname} in buffer {expr} to {val}. This also works for a global or local window option, but it doesn't work for a global or local window variable. For a local window option the global value is unchanged. For the use of {expr}, see |bufname()| above. Note that the variable name without "b:" must be used. Examples: :call setbufvar(1, "&mod", 1) :call setbufvar("todo", "myvar", "foobar") This function is not available in the |sandbox|. setcmdpos({pos}) *setcmdpos()* Set the cursor position in the command line to byte position {pos}. The first position is 1. Use |getcmdpos()| to obtain the current position. Only works while editing the command line, thus you must use |c_CTRL-\_e|, |c_CTRL-R_=| or |c_CTRL-R_CTRL-R| with '='. For |c_CTRL-\_e| and |c_CTRL-R_CTRL-R| with '=' the position is set after the command line is set to the expression. For |c_CTRL-R_=| it is set after evaluating the expression but before inserting the resulting text. When the number is too big the cursor is put at the end of the line. A number smaller than one has undefined results. Returns 0 when successful, 1 when not editing the command line. setline({lnum}, {text}) *setline()* Set line {lnum} of the current buffer to {text}. {lnum} is used like with |getline()|. When {lnum} is just below the last line the {text} will be added as a new line. If this succeeds, 0 is returned. If this fails (most likely because {lnum} is invalid) 1 is returned. Example: :call setline(5, strftime("%c")) When {text} is a |List| then line {lnum} and following lines will be set to the items in the list. Example: :call setline(5, ['aaa', 'bbb', 'ccc']) This is equivalent to: :for [n, l] in [[5, 6, 7], ['aaa', 'bbb', 'ccc']] : call setline(n, l) :endfor Note: The '[ and '] marks are not set. setloclist({nr}, {list} [, {action}]) *setloclist()* Create or replace or add to the location list for window {nr}. When {nr} is zero the current window is used. For a location list window, the displayed location list is modified. For an invalid window number {nr}, -1 is returned. Otherwise, same as |setqflist()|. Also see |location-list|. setmatches({list}) *setmatches()* Restores a list of matches saved by |getmatches()|. Returns 0 if successful, otherwise -1. All current matches are cleared before the list is restored. See example for |getmatches()|. *setpos()* setpos({expr}, {list}) Set the position for {expr}. Possible values: . the cursor 'x mark x {list} must be a |List| with four numbers: [bufnum, lnum, col, off] "bufnum" is the buffer number. Zero can be used for the current buffer. Setting the cursor is only possible for the current buffer. To set a mark in another buffer you can use the |bufnr()| function to turn a file name into a buffer number. Does not change the jumplist. "lnum" and "col" are the position in the buffer. The first column is 1. Use a zero "lnum" to delete a mark. The "off" number is only used when 'virtualedit' is set. Then it is the offset in screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last character. Returns 0 when the position could be set, -1 otherwise. An error message is given if {expr} is invalid. Also see |getpos()| This does not restore the preferred column for moving vertically. See |winrestview()| for that. setqflist({list} [, {action}]) *setqflist()* Create or replace or add to the quickfix list using the items in {list}. Each item in {list} is a dictionary. Non-dictionary items in {list} are ignored. Each dictionary item can contain the following entries: bufnr buffer number; must be the number of a valid buffer filename name of a file; only used when "bufnr" is not present or it is invalid. lnum line number in the file pattern search pattern used to locate the error col column number vcol when non-zero: "col" is visual column when zero: "col" is byte index nr error number text description of the error type single-character error type, 'E', 'W', etc. The "col", "vcol", "nr", "type" and "text" entries are optional. Either "lnum" or "pattern" entry can be used to locate a matching error line. If the "filename" and "bufnr" entries are not present or neither the "lnum" or "pattern" entries are present, then the item will not be handled as an error line. If both "pattern" and "lnum" are present then "pattern" will be used. Note that the list is not exactly the same as what |getqflist()| returns. If {action} is set to 'a', then the items from {list} are added to the existing quickfix list. If there is no existing list, then a new list is created. If {action} is set to 'r', then the items from the current quickfix list are replaced with the items from {list}. If {action} is not present or is set to '' '', then a new list is created. Returns zero for success, -1 for failure. This function can be used to create a quickfix list independent of the 'errorformat' setting. Use a command like ":cc 1" to jump to the first position. *setreg()* setreg({regname}, {value} [,{options}]) Set the register {regname} to {value}. If {options} contains "a" or {regname} is upper case, then the value is appended. {options} can also contains a register type specification: "c" or "v" |characterwise| mode "l" or "V" |linewise| mode "b" or "<CTRL-V>" |blockwise-visual| mode If a number immediately follows "b" or "<CTRL-V>" then this is used as the width of the selection - if it is not specified then the width of the block is set to the number of characters in the longest line (counting a <Tab> as 1 character). If {options} contains no register settings, then the default is to use character mode unless {value} ends in a <NL>. Setting the '=' register is not possible. Returns zero for success, non-zero for failure. Examples: :call setreg(v:register, @*) :call setreg('*', @%, 'ac') :call setreg('a', "1\n2\n3", 'b5') This example shows using the functions to save and restore a register. :let var_a = getreg('a', 1) :let var_amode = getregtype('a') .... :call setreg('a', var_a, var_amode) You can also change the type of a register by appending nothing: :call setreg('a', '', 'al') settabwinvar({tabnr}, {winnr}, {varname}, {val}) *settabwinvar()* Set option or local variable {varname} in window {winnr} to {val}. Tabs are numbered starting with one. For the current tabpage use |setwinvar()|. When {winnr} is zero the current window is used. This also works for a global or local buffer option, but it doesn't work for a global or local buffer variable. For a local buffer option the global value is unchanged. Note that the variable name without "w:" must be used. Vim briefly goes to the tab page {tabnr}, this may trigger TabLeave and TabEnter autocommands. Examples: :call settabwinvar(1, 1, "&list", 0) :call settabwinvar(3, 2, "myvar", "foobar") This function is not available in the |sandbox|. setwinvar({nr}, {varname}, {val}) *setwinvar()* Like |settabwinvar()| for the current tab page. Examples: :call setwinvar(1, "&list", 0) :call setwinvar(2, "myvar", "foobar") shellescape({string} [, {special}]) *shellescape()* Escape {string} for use as shell command argument. On MS-Windows and MS-DOS, when 'shellslash' is not set, it will enclose {string} in double quotes and double all double quotes within {string}. For other systems, it will enclose {string} in single quotes and replace all "'"' with "'\''"'. When the {special} argument is present and it's a non-zero Number or a non-empty String (|non-zero-arg|), then special items such as "!", "%", "#" and "<cword>" will be preceded by a backslash. This backslash will be removed again by the |:!| command. The "!" character will be escaped (again with a |non-zero-arg| {special}) when 'shell' contains "csh" in the tail. That is because for csh and tcsh "!" is used for history replacement even when inside single quotes. The <NL> character is also escaped. With a |non-zero-arg| {special} and 'shell' containing "csh" in the tail it's escaped a second time. Example of use with a |:!| command: :exe '!dir ' . shellescape(expand('<cfile>'), 1) This results in a directory listing for the file under the cursor. Example of use with YXXYsystem()|: :call system("chmod +w -- " . shellescape(expand("%"))) simplify({filename}) *simplify()* Simplify the file name as much as possible without changing the meaning. Shortcuts (on MS-Windows) or symbolic links (on Unix) are not resolved. If the first path component in {filename} designates the current directory, this will be valid for the result as well. A trailing path separator is not removed either. Example: simplify("./dir/.././/file/") == "./file/" Note: The combination "dir/.." is only removed if "dir" is a searchable directory or does not exist. On Unix, it is also removed when "dir" is a symbolic link within the same directory. In order to resolve all the involved symbolic links before simplifying the path name, use |resolve()|. sin({expr}) *sin()* Return the sine of {expr}, measured in radians, as a |Float|. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: :echo sin(100) -0.506366 :echo sin(-4.01) 0.763301 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} sort({list} [, {func}]) *sort()* *E702* Sort the items in {list} in-place. Returns {list}. If you want a list to remain unmodified make a copy first: :let sortedlist = sort(copy(mylist)) Uses the string representation of each item to sort on. Numbers sort after Strings, |Lists| after Numbers. For sorting text in the current buffer use |:sort|. When {func} is given and it is one then case is ignored. When {func} is a |Funcref| or a function name, this function is called to compare items. The function is invoked with two items as argument and must return zero if they are equal, 1 if the first one sorts after the second one, -1 if the first one sorts before the second one. Example: func MyCompare(i1, i2) return a:i1 == a:i2 ? 0 : a:i1 > a:i2 ? 1 : -1 endfunc let sortedlist = sort(mylist, "MyCompare") *soundfold()* soundfold({word}) Return the sound-folded equivalent of {word}. Uses the first language in 'spelllang' for the current window that supports soundfolding. 'spell' must be set. When no sound folding is possible the {word} is returned unmodified. This can be used for making spelling suggestions. Note that the method can be quite slow. *spellbadword()* spellbadword([{sentence}]) Without argument: The result is the badly spelled word under or after the cursor. The cursor is moved to the start of the bad word. When no bad word is found in the cursor line the result is an empty string and the cursor doesn't move. With argument: The result is the first word in {sentence} that is badly spelled. If there are no spelling mistakes the result is an empty string. The return value is a list with two items: - The badly spelled word or an empty string. - The type of the spelling error: "bad" spelling mistake "rare" rare word "local" word only valid in another region "caps" word should start with Capital Example: echo spellbadword("the quik brown fox") ['quik', 'bad'] The spelling information for the current window is used. The 'spell' option must be set and the value of 'spelllang' is used. *spellsuggest()* spellsuggest({word} [, {max} [, {capital}]]) Return a |List| with spelling suggestions to replace {word}. When {max} is given up to this number of suggestions are returned. Otherwise up to 25 suggestions are returned. When the {capital} argument is given and it's non-zero only suggestions with a leading capital will be given. Use this after a match with 'spellcapcheck'. {word} can be a badly spelled word followed by other text. This allows for joining two words that were split. The suggestions also include the following text, thus you can replace a line. {word} may also be a good word. Similar words will then be returned. {word} itself is not included in the suggestions, although it may appear capitalized. The spelling information for the current window is used. The 'spell' option must be set and the values of 'spelllang' and 'spellsuggest' are used. split({expr} [, {pattern} [, {keepempty}]]) *split()* Make a |List| out of {expr}. When {pattern} is omitted or empty each white-separated sequence of characters becomes an item. Otherwise the string is split where {pattern} matches, removing the matched characters. When the first or last item is empty it is omitted, unless the {keepempty} argument is given and it's non-zero. Other empty items are kept when {pattern} matches at least one character or when {keepempty} is non-zero. Example: :let words = split(getline('.'), '\W\+') To split a string in individual characters: :for c in split(mystring, '\zs') If you want to keep the separator you can also use '\zs': :echo split('abc:def:ghi', ':\zs') ['abc:', 'def:', 'ghi'] Splitting a table where the first element can be empty: :let items = split(line, ':', 1) The opposite function is |join()|. sqrt({expr}) *sqrt()* Return the non-negative square root of Float {expr} as a |Float|. {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. When {expr} is negative the result is NaN (Not a Number). Examples: :echo sqrt(100) 10.0 :echo sqrt(-4.01) nan "nan" may be different, it depends on system libraries. {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} str2float( {expr}) *str2float()* Convert String {expr} to a Float. This mostly works the same as when using a floating point number in an expression, see |floating-point-format|. But it's a bit more permissive. E.g., "1e40" is accepted, while in an expression you need to write "1.0e40". Text after the number is silently ignored. The decimal point is always '.', no matter what the locale is set to. A comma ends the number: "12,345.67" is converted to 12.0. You can strip out thousands separators with YXXYsubstitute()|: let f = str2float(substitute(text, ',', '', 'g')) {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} str2nr( {expr} [, {base}]) *str2nr()* Convert string {expr} to a number. {base} is the conversion base, it can be 8, 10 or 16. When {base} is omitted base 10 is used. This also means that a leading zero doesn't cause octal conversion to be used, as with the default String to Number conversion. When {base} is 16 a leading "0x" or "0X" is ignored. With a different base the result will be zero. Text after the number is silently ignored. strftime({format} [, {time}]) *strftime()* The result is a String, which is a formatted date and time, as specified by the {format} string. The given {time} is used, or the current time if no time is given. The accepted {format} depends on your system, thus this is not portable! See the manual page of the C function strftime() for the format. The maximum length of the result is 80 characters. See also |localtime()| and |getftime()|. The language can be changed with the |:language| command. Examples: :echo strftime("%c") Sun Apr 27 11:49:23 1997 :echo strftime("%Y %b %d %X") 1997 Apr 27 11:53:25 :echo strftime("%y%m%d %T") 970427 11:53:55 :echo strftime("%H:%M") 11:55 :echo strftime("%c", getftime("file.c")) Show mod time of file.c. Not available on all systems. To check use: :if exists("*strftime") stridx({haystack}, {needle} [, {start}]) *stridx()* The result is a Number, which gives the byte index in {haystack} of the first occurrence of the String {needle}. If {start} is specified, the search starts at index {start}. This can be used to find a second match: :let comma1 = stridx(line, ",") :let comma2 = stridx(line, ",", comma1 + 1) The search is done case-sensitive. For pattern searches use |match()|. -1 is returned if the {needle} does not occur in {haystack}. See also |strridx()|. Examples: :echo stridx("An Example", "Example") 3 :echo stridx("Starting point", "Start") 0 :echo stridx("Starting point", "start") -1 *strstr()* *strchr()* stridx() works similar to the C function strstr(). When used with a single character it works similar to strchr(). *string()* string({expr}) Return {expr} converted to a String. If {expr} is a Number, Float, String or a composition of them, then the result can be parsed back with |eval()|. {expr} type result String 'string' Number 123 Float 123.123456 or 1.123456e8 Funcref function('name') List [item, item] Dictionary {key: value, key: value} Note that in String values the '' character is doubled. Also see |strtrans()|. *strlen()* strlen({expr}) The result is a Number, which is the length of the String {expr} in bytes. If you want to count the number of multi-byte characters (not counting composing characters) use something like this: :let len = strlen(substitute(str, ".", "x", "g")) If the argument is a Number it is first converted to a String. For other types an error is given. Also see |len()|. strpart({src}, {start}[, {len}]) *strpart()* The result is a String, which is part of {src}, starting from byte {start}, with the byte length {len}. When non-existing bytes are included, this doesn't result in an error, the bytes are simply omitted. If {len} is missing, the copy continues from {start} till the end of the {src}. strpart("abcdefg", 3, 2) == "de" strpart("abcdefg", -2, 4) == "ab" strpart("abcdefg", 5, 4) == "fg" strpart("abcdefg", 3) == "defg" Note: To get the first character, {start} must be 0. For example, to get three bytes under and after the cursor: strpart(getline("."), col(".") - 1, 3) strridx({haystack}, {needle} [, {start}]) *strridx()* The result is a Number, which gives the byte index in {haystack} of the last occurrence of the String {needle}. When {start} is specified, matches beyond this index are ignored. This can be used to find a match before a previous match: :let lastcomma = strridx(line, ",") :let comma2 = strridx(line, ",", lastcomma - 1) The search is done case-sensitive. For pattern searches use |match()|. -1 is returned if the {needle} does not occur in {haystack}. If the {needle} is empty the length of {haystack} is returned. See also |stridx()|. Examples: :echo strridx("an angry armadillo", "an") 3 *strrchr()* When used with a single character it works similar to the C function strrchr(). strtrans({expr}) *strtrans()* The result is a String, which is {expr} with all unprintable characters translated into printable characters |'isprint'|. Like they are shown in a window. Example: echo strtrans(@a) This displays a newline in register a as "^@" instead of starting a new line. submatch({nr}) *submatch()* Only for an expression in a |:substitute| command. Returns the {nr}'th submatch of the matched text. When {nr} is 0 the whole matched text is returned. Example: :s/\d\+/\=submatch(0) + 1/ This finds the first number in the line and adds one to it. A line break is included as a newline character. substitute({expr}, {pat}, {sub}, {flags}) *substitute()* The result is a String, which is a copy of {expr}, in which the first match of {pat} is replaced with {sub}. This works like the ":substitute" command (without any flags). But the matching with {pat} is always done like the 'magic' option is set and 'cpoptions' is empty (to make scripts portable). 'ignorecase' is still relevant. 'smartcase' is not used. See |string-match| for how {pat} is used. And a "~" in {sub} is not replaced with the previous {sub}. Note that some codes in {sub} have a special meaning |sub-replace-special|. For example, to replace something with "\n" (two characters), use "\\\\n" or '\\n'. When {pat} does not match in {expr}, {expr} is returned unmodified. When {flags} is "g", all matches of {pat} in {expr} are replaced. Otherwise {flags} should be "". Example: :let &path = substitute(&path, ",\\=[^,]*$", "", "") This removes the last component of the 'path' option. :echo substitute("testing", ".*", "\\U\\0", "") results in "TESTING". synID({lnum}, {col}, {trans}) *synID()* The result is a Number, which is the syntax ID at the position {lnum} and {col} in the current window. The syntax ID can be used with |synIDattr()| and |synIDtrans()| to obtain syntax information about text. {col} is 1 for the leftmost column, {lnum} is 1 for the first line. 'synmaxcol' applies, in a longer line zero is returned. When {trans} is non-zero, transparent items are reduced to the item that they reveal. This is useful when wanting to know the effective color. When {trans} is zero, the transparent item is returned. This is useful when wanting to know which syntax item is effective (e.g. inside parens). Warning: This function can be very slow. Best speed is obtained by going through the file in forward direction. Example (echoes the name of the syntax item under the cursor): :echo synIDattr(synID(line("."), col("."), 1), "name") synIDattr({synID}, {what} [, {mode}]) *synIDattr()* The result is a String, which is the {what} attribute of syntax ID {synID}. This can be used to obtain information about a syntax item. {mode} can be "gui", "cterm" or "term", to get the attributes for that mode. When {mode} is omitted, or an invalid value is used, the attributes for the currently active highlighting are used (GUI, cterm or term). Use synIDtrans() to follow linked highlight groups. {what} result "name" the name of the syntax item "fg" foreground color (GUI: color name used to set the color, cterm: color number as a string, term: empty string) "bg" background color (as with "fg") "sp" special color (as with "fg") |highlight-guisp| "fg#" like "fg", but for the GUI and the GUI is running the name in "#RRGGBB" form "bg#" like "fg#" for "bg" "sp#" like "fg#" for "sp" "bold" "1" if bold "italic" "1" if italic "reverse" "1" if reverse "inverse" "1" if inverse (= reverse) "underline" "1" if underlined "undercurl" "1" if undercurled Example (echoes the color of the syntax item under the cursor): :echo synIDattr(synIDtrans(synID(line("."), col("."), 1)), "fg") synIDtrans({synID}) *synIDtrans()* The result is a Number, which is the translated syntax ID of {synID}. This is the syntax group ID of what is being used to highlight the character. Highlight links given with ":highlight link" are followed. synstack({lnum}, {col}) *synstack()* Return a |List|, which is the stack of syntax items at the position {lnum} and {col} in the current window. Each item in the List is an ID like what |synID()| returns. The first item in the List is the outer region, following are items contained in that one. The last one is what |synID()| returns, unless not the whole item is highlighted or it is a transparent item. This function is useful for debugging a syntax file. Example that shows the syntax stack under the cursor: for id in synstack(line("."), col(".")) echo synIDattr(id, "name") endfor system({expr} [, {input}]) *system()* *E677* Get the output of the shell command {expr}. When {input} is given, this string is written to a file and passed as stdin to the command. The string is written as-is, you need to take care of using the correct line separators yourself. Pipes are not used. Note: Use |shellescape()| to escape special characters in a command argument. Newlines in {expr} may cause the command to fail. The characters in 'shellquote' and 'shellxquote' may also cause trouble. This is not to be used for interactive commands. The result is a String. Example: :let files = system("ls " . shellescape(expand('%:h'))) To make the result more system-independent, the shell output is filtered to replace <CR> with <NL> for Macintosh, and <CR><NL> with <NL> for DOS-like systems. The command executed is constructed using several options: 'shell' 'shellcmdflag' 'shellxquote' {expr} 'shellredir' {tmp} 'shellxquote' ({tmp} is an automatically generated file name). For Unix and OS/2 braces are put around {expr} to allow for concatenated commands. The command will be executed in "cooked" mode, so that a CTRL-C will interrupt the command (on Unix at least). The resulting error code can be found in |v:shell_error|. This function will fail in |restricted-mode|. Note that any wrong value in the options mentioned above may make the function fail. It has also been reported to fail when using a security agent application. Unlike ":!cmd" there is no automatic check for changed files. Use |:checktime| to force a check. tabpagebuflist([{arg}]) *tabpagebuflist()* The result is a |List|, where each item is the number of the buffer associated with each window in the current tab page. {arg} specifies the number of tab page to be used. When omitted the current tab page is used. When {arg} is invalid the number zero is returned. To get a list of all buffers in all tabs use this: tablist = [] for i in range(tabpagenr('$')) call extend(tablist, tabpagebuflist(i + 1)) endfor Note that a buffer may appear in more than one window. tabpagenr([{arg}]) *tabpagenr()* The result is a Number, which is the number of the current tab page. The first tab page has number 1. When the optional argument is "$", the number of the last tab page is returned (the tab page count). The number can be used with the |:tab| command. tabpagewinnr({tabarg}, [{arg}]) *tabpagewinnr()* Like |winnr()| but for tab page {arg}. {tabarg} specifies the number of tab page to be used. {arg} is used like with YXXYwinnr()|: - When omitted the current window number is returned. This is the window which will be used when going to this tab page. - When "$" the number of windows is returned. - When "#" the previous window nr is returned. Useful examples: tabpagewinnr(1) " current window of tab page 1 tabpagewinnr(4, '$') " number of windows in tab page 4 When {tabarg} is invalid zero is returned. *tagfiles()* tagfiles() Returns a |List| with the file names used to search for tags for the current buffer. This is the 'tags' option expanded. taglist({expr}) *taglist()* Returns a list of tags matching the regular expression {expr}. Each list item is a dictionary with at least the following entries: name Name of the tag. filename Name of the file where the tag is defined. It is either relative to the current directory or a full path. cmd Ex command used to locate the tag in the file. kind Type of the tag. The value for this entry depends on the language specific kind values. Only available when using a tags file generated by Exuberant ctags or hdrtag. static A file specific tag. Refer to |static-tag| for more information. More entries may be present, depending on the content of the tags file: access, implementation, inherits and signature. Refer to the ctags documentation for information about these fields. For C code the fields "struct", "class" and "enum" may appear, they give the name of the entity the tag is contained in. The ex-command 'cmd' can be either an ex search pattern, a line number or a line number followed by a byte number. If there are no matching tags, then an empty list is returned. To get an exact tag match, the anchors '^' and '$' should be used in {expr}. Refer to |tag-regexp| for more information about the tag search regular expression pattern. Refer to |'tags'| for information about how the tags file is located by Vim. Refer to |tags-file-format| for the format of the tags file generated by the different ctags tools. tempname() *tempname()* *temp-file-name* The result is a String, which is the name of a file that doesn't exist. It can be used for a temporary file. The name is different for at least 26 consecutive calls. Example: :let tmpfile = tempname() :exe "redir > " . tmpfile For Unix, the file will be in a private directory (only accessible by the current user) to avoid security problems (e.g., a symlink attack or other people reading your file). When Vim exits the directory and all files in it are deleted. For MS-Windows forward slashes are used when the 'shellslash' option is set or when 'shellcmdflag' starts with '-'. tolower({expr}) *tolower()* The result is a copy of the String given, with all uppercase characters turned into lowercase (just like applying |gu| to the string). toupper({expr}) *toupper()* The result is a copy of the String given, with all lowercase characters turned into uppercase (just like applying |gU| to the string). tr({src}, {fromstr}, {tostr}) *tr()* The result is a copy of the {src} string with all characters which appear in {fromstr} replaced by the character in that position in the {tostr} string. Thus the first character in {fromstr} is translated into the first character in {tostr} and so on. Exactly like the unix "tr" command. This code also deals with multibyte characters properly. Examples: echo tr("hello there", "ht", "HT") returns "Hello THere" echo tr("<blob>", "<>", "{}") returns "{blob}" trunc({expr}) *trunc()* Return the largest integral value with magnitude less than or equal to {expr} as a |Float| (truncate towards zero). {expr} must evaluate to a |Float| or a |Number|. Examples: echo trunc(1.456) 1.0 echo trunc(-5.456) -5.0 echo trunc(4.0) 4.0 {only available when compiled with the |+float| feature} *type()* type({expr}) The result is a Number, depending on the type of {expr}: Number: 0 String: 1 Funcref: 2 List: 3 Dictionary: 4 Float: 5 To avoid the magic numbers it should be used this way: :if type(myvar) == type(0) :if type(myvar) == type("") :if type(myvar) == type(function("tr")) :if type(myvar) == type([]) :if type(myvar) == type({}) :if type(myvar) == type(0.0) values({dict}) *values()* Return a |List| with all the values of {dict}. The |List| is in arbitrary order. virtcol({expr}) *virtcol()* The result is a Number, which is the screen column of the file position given with {expr}. That is, the last screen position occupied by the character at that position, when the screen would be of unlimited width. When there is a <Tab> at the position, the returned Number will be the column at the end of the <Tab>. For example, for a <Tab> in column 1, with 'ts' set to 8, it returns 8. For the byte position use |col()|. For the use of {expr} see |col()|. When 'virtualedit' is used {expr} can be [lnum, col, off], where "off" is the offset in screen columns from the start of the character. E.g., a position within a <Tab> or after the last character. When Virtual editing is active in the current mode, a position beyond the end of the line can be returned. |'virtualedit'| The accepted positions are: . the cursor position $ the end of the cursor line (the result is the number of displayed characters in the cursor line plus one) 'x position of mark x (if the mark is not set, 0 is returned) Note that only marks in the current file can be used. Examples: virtcol(".") with text "foo^Lbar", with cursor on the "^L", returns 5 virtcol("$") with text "foo^Lbar", returns 9 virtcol("'t") with text " there", with 't at 'h', returns 6 The first column is 1. 0 is returned for an error. A more advanced example that echoes the maximum length of all lines: echo max(map(range(1, line('$')), "virtcol([v:val, '$'])")) visualmode([expr]) *visualmode()* The result is a String, which describes the last Visual mode used in the current buffer. Initially it returns an empty string, but once Visual mode has been used, it returns "v", "V", or "<CTRL-V>" (a single CTRL-V character) for character-wise, line-wise, or block-wise Visual mode respectively. Example: :exe "normal " . visualmode() This enters the same Visual mode as before. It is also useful in scripts if you wish to act differently depending on the Visual mode that was used. If Visual mode is active, use |mode()| to get the Visual mode (e.g., in a |:vmap|). *non-zero-arg* If [expr] is supplied and it evaluates to a non-zero Number or a non-empty String, then the Visual mode will be cleared and the old value is returned. Note that " " and "0" are also non-empty strings, thus cause the mode to be cleared. A List, Dictionary or Float is not a Number or String, thus does not cause the mode to be cleared. *winbufnr()* winbufnr({nr}) The result is a Number, which is the number of the buffer associated with window {nr}. When {nr} is zero, the number of the buffer in the current window is returned. When window {nr} doesn't exist, -1 is returned. Example: :echo "The file in the current window is " . bufname(winbufnr(0)) *wincol()* wincol() The result is a Number, which is the virtual column of the cursor in the window. This is counting screen cells from the left side of the window. The leftmost column is one. winheight({nr}) *winheight()* The result is a Number, which is the height of window {nr}. When {nr} is zero, the height of the current window is returned. When window {nr} doesn't exist, -1 is returned. An existing window always has a height of zero or more. Examples: :echo "The current window has " . winheight(0) . " lines." *winline()* winline() The result is a Number, which is the screen line of the cursor in the window. This is counting screen lines from the top of the window. The first line is one. If the cursor was moved the view on the file will be updated first, this may cause a scroll. *winnr()* winnr([{arg}]) The result is a Number, which is the number of the current window. The top window has number 1. When the optional argument is "$", the number of the last window is returned (the window count). When the optional argument is "#", the number of the last accessed window is returned (where |CTRL-W_p| goes to). If there is no previous window or it is in another tab page 0 is returned. The number can be used with |CTRL-W_w| and ":wincmd w" |:wincmd|. Also see |tabpagewinnr()|. *winrestcmd()* winrestcmd() Returns a sequence of |:resize| commands that should restore the current window sizes. Only works properly when no windows are opened or closed and the current window and tab page is unchanged. Example: :let cmd = winrestcmd() :call MessWithWindowSizes() :exe cmd *winrestview()* winrestview({dict}) Uses the |Dictionary| returned by |winsaveview()| to restore the view of the current window. If you have changed the values the result is unpredictable. If the window size changed the result won't be the same. *winsaveview()* winsaveview() Returns a |Dictionary| that contains information to restore the view of the current window. Use |winrestview()| to restore the view. This is useful if you have a mapping that jumps around in the buffer and you want to go back to the original view. This does not save fold information. Use the 'foldenable' option to temporarily switch off folding, so that folds are not opened when moving around. The return value includes: lnum cursor line number col cursor column coladd cursor column offset for 'virtualedit' curswant column for vertical movement topline first line in the window topfill filler lines, only in diff mode leftcol first column displayed skipcol columns skipped Note that no option values are saved. winwidth({nr}) *winwidth()* The result is a Number, which is the width of window {nr}. When {nr} is zero, the width of the current window is returned. When window {nr} doesn't exist, -1 is returned. An existing window always has a width of zero or more. Examples: :echo "The current window has " . winwidth(0) . " columns." :if winwidth(0) <= 50 : exe "normal 50\<C-W>|" :endif *writefile()* writefile({list}, {fname} [, {binary}]) Write |List| {list} to file {fname}. Each list item is separated with a NL. Each list item must be a String or Number. When {binary} is equal to "b" binary mode is used: There will not be a NL after the last list item. An empty item at the end does cause the last line in the file to end in a NL. All NL characters are replaced with a NUL character. Inserting CR characters needs to be done before passing {list} to writefile(). An existing file is overwritten, if possible. When the write fails -1 is returned, otherwise 0. There is an error message if the file can't be created or when writing fails. Also see |readfile()|. To copy a file byte for byte: :let fl = readfile("foo", "b") :call writefile(fl, "foocopy", "b") *feature-list* There are three types of features: 1. Features that are only supported when they have been enabled when Vim was compiled |+feature-list|. Example: :if has("cindent") 2. Features that are only supported when certain conditions have been met. Example: :if has("gui_running") *has-patch* 3. Included patches. First check |v:version| for the version of Vim. Then the "patch123" feature means that patch 123 has been included for this version. Example (checking version 6.2.148 or later): :if v:version > 602 || v:version == 602 && has("patch148") Note that it's possible for patch 147 to be omitted even though 148 is included. all_builtin_terms Compiled with all builtin terminals enabled. amiga Amiga version of Vim. arabic Compiled with Arabic support |Arabic|. arp Compiled with ARP support (Amiga). autocmd Compiled with autocommand support. |autocommand| balloon_eval Compiled with |balloon-eval| support. balloon_multiline GUI supports multiline balloons. beos BeOS version of Vim. browse Compiled with |:browse| support, and browse() will work. builtin_terms Compiled with some builtin terminals. byte_offset Compiled with support for 'o' in 'statusline' cindent Compiled with 'cindent' support. clientserver Compiled with remote invocation support |clientserver|. clipboard Compiled with 'clipboard' support. cmdline_compl Compiled with |cmdline-completion| support. cmdline_hist Compiled with |cmdline-history| support. cmdline_info Compiled with 'showcmd' and 'ruler' support. comments Compiled with |'comments'| support. cryptv Compiled with encryption support |encryption|. cscope Compiled with |cscope| support. compatible Compiled to be very Vi compatible. debug Compiled with "DEBUG" defined. dialog_con Compiled with console dialog support. dialog_gui Compiled with GUI dialog support. diff Compiled with |vimdiff| and 'diff' support. digraphs Compiled with support for digraphs. dnd Compiled with support for the "~ register |quote_~|. dos32 32 bits DOS (DJGPP) version of Vim. dos16 16 bits DOS version of Vim. ebcdic Compiled on a machine with ebcdic character set. emacs_tags Compiled with support for Emacs tags. eval Compiled with expression evaluation support. Always true, of course! ex_extra Compiled with extra Ex commands |+ex_extra|. extra_search Compiled with support for |'incsearch'| and |'hlsearch'| farsi Compiled with Farsi support |farsi|. file_in_path Compiled with support for |gf| and |<cfile>| filterpipe When 'shelltemp' is off pipes are used for shell read/write/filter commands find_in_path Compiled with support for include file searches |+find_in_path|. float Compiled with support for |Float|. fname_case Case in file names matters (for Amiga, MS-DOS, and Windows this is not present). folding Compiled with |folding| support. footer Compiled with GUI footer support. |gui-footer| fork Compiled to use fork()/exec() instead of system(). gettext Compiled with message translation |multi-lang| gui Compiled with GUI enabled. gui_athena Compiled with Athena GUI. gui_gtk Compiled with GTK+ GUI (any version). gui_gtk2 Compiled with GTK+ 2 GUI (gui_gtk is also defined). gui_gnome Compiled with Gnome support (gui_gtk is also defined). gui_mac Compiled with Macintosh GUI. gui_motif Compiled with Motif GUI. gui_photon Compiled with Photon GUI. gui_win32 Compiled with MS Windows Win32 GUI. gui_win32s idem, and Win32s system being used (Windows 3.1) gui_running Vim is running in the GUI, or it will start soon. hangul_input Compiled with Hangul input support. |hangul| iconv Can use iconv() for conversion. insert_expand Compiled with support for CTRL-X expansion commands in Insert mode. jumplist Compiled with |jumplist| support. keymap Compiled with 'keymap' support. langmap Compiled with 'langmap' support. libcall Compiled with |libcall()| support. linebreak Compiled with 'linebreak', 'breakat' and 'showbreak' support. lispindent Compiled with support for lisp indenting. listcmds Compiled with commands for the buffer list |:files| and the argument list |arglist|. localmap Compiled with local mappings and abbr. |:map-local| mac Macintosh version of Vim. macunix Macintosh version of Vim, using Unix files (OS-X). menu Compiled with support for |:menu|. mksession Compiled with support for |:mksession|. modify_fname Compiled with file name modifiers. |filename-modifiers| mouse Compiled with support mouse. mouseshape Compiled with support for 'mouseshape'. mouse_dec Compiled with support for Dec terminal mouse. mouse_gpm Compiled with support for gpm (Linux console mouse) mouse_netterm Compiled with support for netterm mouse. mouse_pterm Compiled with support for qnx pterm mouse. mouse_sysmouse Compiled with support for sysmouse (*BSD console mouse) mouse_xterm Compiled with support for xterm mouse. multi_byte Compiled with support for 'encoding' multi_byte_encoding 'encoding' is set to a multi-byte encoding. multi_byte_ime Compiled with support for IME input method. multi_lang Compiled with support for multiple languages. mzscheme Compiled with MzScheme interface |mzscheme|. netbeans_intg Compiled with support for |netbeans|. netbeans_enabled Compiled with support for |netbeans| and it's used. ole Compiled with OLE automation support for Win32. os2 OS/2 version of Vim. osfiletype Compiled with support for osfiletypes |+osfiletype| path_extra Compiled with up/downwards search in 'path' and 'tags' perl Compiled with Perl interface. postscript Compiled with PostScript file printing. printer Compiled with |:hardcopy| support. profile Compiled with |:profile| support. python Compiled with Python interface. qnx QNX version of Vim. quickfix Compiled with |quickfix| support. reltime Compiled with |reltime()| support. rightleft Compiled with 'rightleft' support. ruby Compiled with Ruby interface |ruby|. scrollbind Compiled with 'scrollbind' support. showcmd Compiled with 'showcmd' support. signs Compiled with |:sign| support. smartindent Compiled with 'smartindent' support. sniff Compiled with SNiFF interface support. statusline Compiled with support for 'statusline', 'rulerformat' and special formats of 'titlestring' and 'iconstring'. sun_workshop Compiled with support for Sun |workshop|. spell Compiled with spell checking support |spell|. syntax Compiled with syntax highlighting support |syntax|. syntax_items There are active syntax highlighting items for the current buffer. system Compiled to use system() instead of fork()/exec(). tag_binary Compiled with binary searching in tags files |tag-binary-search|. tag_old_static Compiled with support for old static tags |tag-old-static|. tag_any_white Compiled with support for any white characters in tags files |tag-any-white|. tcl Compiled with Tcl interface. terminfo Compiled with terminfo instead of termcap. termresponse Compiled with support for |t_RV| and |v:termresponse|. textobjects Compiled with support for |text-objects|. tgetent Compiled with tgetent support, able to use a termcap or terminfo file. title Compiled with window title support |'title'|. toolbar Compiled with support for |gui-toolbar|. unix Unix version of Vim. user_commands User-defined commands. viminfo Compiled with viminfo support. vim_starting True while initial source'ing takes place. vertsplit Compiled with vertically split windows |:vsplit|. virtualedit Compiled with 'virtualedit' option. visual Compiled with Visual mode. visualextra Compiled with extra Visual mode commands. |blockwise-operators|. vms VMS version of Vim. vreplace Compiled with |gR| and |gr| commands. wildignore Compiled with 'wildignore' option. wildmenu Compiled with 'wildmenu' option. windows Compiled with support for more than one window. winaltkeys Compiled with 'winaltkeys' option. win16 Win16 version of Vim (MS-Windows 3.1). win32 Win32 version of Vim (MS-Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP). win64 Win64 version of Vim (MS-Windows 64 bit). win32unix Win32 version of Vim, using Unix files (Cygwin) win95 Win32 version for MS-Windows 95/98/ME. writebackup Compiled with 'writebackup' default on. xfontset Compiled with X fontset support |xfontset|. xim Compiled with X input method support |xim|. xsmp Compiled with X session management support. xsmp_interact Compiled with interactive X session management support. xterm_clipboard Compiled with support for xterm clipboard. xterm_save Compiled with support for saving and restoring the xterm screen. x11 Compiled with X11 support. *string-match* Matching a pattern in a String A regexp pattern as explained at |pattern| is normally used to find a match in the buffer lines. When a pattern is used to find a match in a String, almost everything works in the same way. The difference is that a String is handled like it is one line. When it contains a "\n" character, this is not seen as a line break for the pattern. It can be matched with a "\n" in the pattern, or with ".". Example: :let a = "aaaa\nxxxx" :echo matchstr(a, "..\n..") aa xx :echo matchstr(a, "a.x") a x Don't forget that "^" will only match at the first character of the String and "$" at the last character of the string. They don't match after or before a "\n".
5. Defining functions *user-functions* New functions can be defined. These can be called just like builtin functions. The function executes a sequence of Ex commands. Normal mode commands can be executed with the |:normal| command. The function name must start with an uppercase letter, to avoid confusion with builtin functions. To prevent from using the same name in different scripts avoid obvious, short names. A good habit is to start the function name with the name of the script, e.g., "HTMLcolor()". It's also possible to use curly braces, see |curly-braces-names|. And the |autoload| facility is useful to define a function only when it's called. *local-function* A function local to a script must start with "s:". A local script function can only be called from within the script and from functions, user commands and autocommands defined in the script. It is also possible to call the function from a mapping defined in the script, but then |<SID>| must be used instead of "s:" when the mapping is expanded outside of the script. *:fu* *:function* *E128* *E129* *E123* :fu[nction] List all functions and their arguments. :fu[nction] {name} List function {name}. {name} can also be a |Dictionary| entry that is a YXXYFuncref|: :function dict.init :fu[nction] /{pattern} List functions with a name matching {pattern}. Example that lists all functions ending with "File": :function /File$ *:function-verbose* When 'verbose' is non-zero, listing a function will also display where it was last defined. Example: :verbose function SetFileTypeSH function SetFileTypeSH(name) Last set from /usr/share/vim/vim-7.0/filetype.vim See |:verbose-cmd| for more information. *E124* *E125* :fu[nction][!] {name}([arguments]) [range] [abort] [dict] Define a new function by the name {name}. The name must be made of alphanumeric characters and '_', and must start with a capital or "s:" (see above). {name} can also be a |Dictionary| entry that is a YXXYFuncref|: :function dict.init(arg) "dict" must be an existing dictionary. The entry "init" is added if it didn't exist yet. Otherwise [!] is required to overwrite an existing function. The result is a |Funcref| to a numbered function. The function can only be used with a |Funcref| and will be deleted if there are no more references to it. *E127* *E122* When a function by this name already exists and [!] is not used an error message is given. When [!] is used, an existing function is silently replaced. Unless it is currently being executed, that is an error. For the {arguments} see |function-argument|. *a:firstline* *a:lastline* When the [range] argument is added, the function is expected to take care of a range itself. The range is passed as "a:firstline" and "a:lastline". If [range] is excluded, ":{range}call" will call the function for each line in the range, with the cursor on the start of each line. See |function-range-example|. When the [abort] argument is added, the function will abort as soon as an error is detected. When the [dict] argument is added, the function must be invoked through an entry in a |Dictionary|. The local variable "self" will then be set to the dictionary. See |Dictionary-function|. *function-search-undo* The last used search pattern and the redo command "." will not be changed by the function. This also implies that the effect of |:nohlsearch| is undone when the function returns. *:endf* *:endfunction* *E126* *E193* :endf[unction] The end of a function definition. Must be on a line by its own, without other commands. *:delf* *:delfunction* *E130* *E131* :delf[unction] {name} Delete function {name}. {name} can also be a |Dictionary| entry that is a YXXYFuncref|: :delfunc dict.init This will remove the "init" entry from "dict". The function is deleted if there are no more references to it. *:retu* *:return* *E133* :retu[rn] [expr] Return from a function. When "[expr]" is given, it is evaluated and returned as the result of the function. If "[expr]" is not given, the number 0 is returned. When a function ends without an explicit ":return", the number 0 is returned. Note that there is no check for unreachable lines, thus there is no warning if commands follow ":return". If the ":return" is used after a |:try| but before the matching |:finally| (if present), the commands following the ":finally" up to the matching |:endtry| are executed first. This process applies to all nested ":try"s inside the function. The function returns at the outermost ":endtry". *function-argument* *a:var* An argument can be defined by giving its name. In the function this can then be used as "a:name" ("a:" for argument). *a:0* *a:1* *a:000* *E740* *...* Up to 20 arguments can be given, separated by commas. After the named arguments an argument "..." can be specified, which means that more arguments may optionally be following. In the function the extra arguments can be used as "a:1", "a:2", etc. "a:0" is set to the number of extra arguments (which can be 0). "a:000" is set to a |List| that contains these arguments. Note that "a:1" is the same as "a:000[0]". *E742* The a: scope and the variables in it cannot be changed, they are fixed. However, if a |List| or |Dictionary| is used, you can change their contents. Thus you can pass a |List| to a function and have the function add an item to it. If you want to make sure the function cannot change a |List| or |Dictionary| use |:lockvar|. When not using "...", the number of arguments in a function call must be equal to the number of named arguments. When using "...", the number of arguments may be larger. It is also possible to define a function without any arguments. You must still supply the () then. The body of the function follows in the next lines, until the matching |:endfunction|. It is allowed to define another function inside a function body. *local-variables* Inside a function variables can be used. These are local variables, which will disappear when the function returns. Global variables need to be accessed with "g:". Example: :function Table(title, ...) : echohl Title : echo a:title : echohl None : echo a:0 . " items:" : for s in a:000 : echon ' ' . s : endfor :endfunction This function can then be called with: call Table("Table", "line1", "line2") call Table("Empty Table") To return more than one value, return a YXXYList|: :function Compute(n1, n2) : if a:n2 == 0 : return ["fail", 0] : endif : return ["ok", a:n1 / a:n2] :endfunction This function can then be called with: :let [success, div] = Compute(102, 6) :if success == "ok" : echo div :endif *:cal* *:call* *E107* *E117* :[range]cal[l] {name}([arguments]) Call a function. The name of the function and its arguments are as specified with |:function|. Up to 20 arguments can be used. The returned value is discarded. Without a range and for functions that accept a range, the function is called once. When a range is given the cursor is positioned at the start of the first line before executing the function. When a range is given and the function doesn't handle it itself, the function is executed for each line in the range, with the cursor in the first column of that line. The cursor is left at the last line (possibly moved by the last function call). The arguments are re-evaluated for each line. Thus this works: *function-range-example* :function Mynumber(arg) : echo line(".") . " " . a:arg :endfunction :1,5call Mynumber(getline(".")) The "a:firstline" and "a:lastline" are defined anyway, they can be used to do something different at the start or end of the range. Example of a function that handles the range itself: :function Cont() range : execute (a:firstline + 1) . "," . a:lastline . 's/^/\t\\ ' :endfunction :4,8call Cont() This function inserts the continuation character "\" in front of all the lines in the range, except the first one. When the function returns a composite value it can be further dereferenced, but the range will not be used then. Example: :4,8call GetDict().method() Here GetDict() gets the range but method() does not. *E132* The recursiveness of user functions is restricted with the |'maxfuncdepth'| option. AUTOMATICALLY LOADING FUNCTIONS *autoload-functions* When using many or large functions, it's possible to automatically define them only when they are used. There are two methods: with an autocommand and with the "autoload" directory in 'runtimepath'. Using an autocommand This is introduced in the user manual, section |41.14|. The autocommand is useful if you have a plugin that is a long Vim script file. You can define the autocommand and quickly quit the script with |:finish|. That makes Vim startup faster. The autocommand should then load the same file again, setting a variable to skip the |:finish| command. Use the FuncUndefined autocommand event with a pattern that matches the function(s) to be defined. Example: :au FuncUndefined BufNet* source ~/vim/bufnetfuncs.vim The file "~/vim/bufnetfuncs.vim" should then define functions that start with "BufNet". Also see |FuncUndefined|. Using an autoload script *autoload* *E746* This is introduced in the user manual, section |41.15|. Using a script in the "autoload" directory is simpler, but requires using exactly the right file name. A function that can be autoloaded has a name like this: :call filename#funcname() When such a function is called, and it is not defined yet, Vim will search the "autoload" directories in 'runtimepath' for a script file called "filename.vim". For example "~/.vim/autoload/filename.vim". That file should then define the function like this: function filename#funcname() echo "Done!" endfunction The file name and the name used before the # in the function must match exactly, and the defined function must have the name exactly as it will be called. It is possible to use subdirectories. Every # in the function name works like a path separator. Thus when calling a function: :call foo#bar#func() Vim will look for the file "autoload/foo/bar.vim" in 'runtimepath'. This also works when reading a variable that has not been set yet: :let l = foo#bar#lvar However, when the autoload script was already loaded it won't be loaded again for an unknown variable. When assigning a value to such a variable nothing special happens. This can be used to pass settings to the autoload script before it's loaded: :let foo#bar#toggle = 1 :call foo#bar#func() Note that when you make a mistake and call a function that is supposed to be defined in an autoload script, but the script doesn't actually define the function, the script will be sourced every time you try to call the function. And you will get an error message every time. Also note that if you have two script files, and one calls a function in the other and vice versa, before the used function is defined, it won't work. Avoid using the autoload functionality at the toplevel. Hint: If you distribute a bunch of scripts you can pack them together with the |vimball| utility. Also read the user manual |distribute-script|.
6. Curly braces names *curly-braces-names* Wherever you can use a variable, you can use a "curly braces name" variable. This is a regular variable name with one or more expressions wrapped in braces {} like this: my_{adjective}_variable When Vim encounters this, it evaluates the expression inside the braces, puts that in place of the expression, and re-interprets the whole as a variable name. So in the above example, if the variable "adjective" was set to "noisy", then the reference would be to "my_noisy_variable", whereas if "adjective" was set to "quiet", then it would be to "my_quiet_variable". One application for this is to create a set of variables governed by an option value. For example, the statement echo my_{&background}_message would output the contents of "my_dark_message" or "my_light_message" depending on the current value of 'background'. You can use multiple brace pairs: echo my_{adverb}_{adjective}_message ..or even nest them: echo my_{ad{end_of_word}}_message where "end_of_word" is either "verb" or "jective". However, the expression inside the braces must evaluate to a valid single variable name, e.g. this is invalid: :let foo='a + b' :echo c{foo}d .. since the result of expansion is "ca + bd", which is not a variable name. *curly-braces-function-names* You can call and define functions by an evaluated name in a similar way. Example: :let func_end='whizz' :call my_func_{func_end}(parameter) This would call the function "my_func_whizz(parameter)".
7. Commands *expression-commands* :let {var-name} = {expr1} *:let* *E18* Set internal variable {var-name} to the result of the expression {expr1}. The variable will get the type from the {expr}. If {var-name} didn't exist yet, it is created. :let {var-name}[{idx}] = {expr1} *E689* Set a list item to the result of the expression {expr1}. {var-name} must refer to a list and {idx} must be a valid index in that list. For nested list the index can be repeated. This cannot be used to add an item to a |List|. This cannot be used to set a byte in a String. You can do that like this: :let var = var[0:2] . 'X' . var[4:] *E711* *E719* :let {var-name}[{idx1}:{idx2}] = {expr1} *E708* *E709* *E710* Set a sequence of items in a |List| to the result of the expression {expr1}, which must be a list with the correct number of items. {idx1} can be omitted, zero is used instead. {idx2} can be omitted, meaning the end of the list. When the selected range of items is partly past the end of the list, items will be added. *:let+=* *:let-=* *:let.=* *E734* :let {var} += {expr1} Like ":let {var} = {var} + {expr1}". :let {var} -= {expr1} Like ":let {var} = {var} - {expr1}". :let {var} .= {expr1} Like ":let {var} = {var} . {expr1}". These fail if {var} was not set yet and when the type of {var} and {expr1} don't fit the operator. :let ${env-name} = {expr1} *:let-environment* *:let-$* Set environment variable {env-name} to the result of the expression {expr1}. The type is always String. :let ${env-name} .= {expr1} Append {expr1} to the environment variable {env-name}. If the environment variable didn't exist yet this works like "=". :let @{reg-name} = {expr1} *:let-register* *:[email protected]* Write the result of the expression {expr1} in register {reg-name}. {reg-name} must be a single letter, and must be the name of a writable register (see |registers|). "@@" can be used for the unnamed register, "@/" for the search pattern. If the result of {expr1} ends in a <CR> or <NL>, the register will be linewise, otherwise it will be set to characterwise. This can be used to clear the last search pattern: :let @/ = "" This is different from searching for an empty string, that would match everywhere. :let @{reg-name} .= {expr1} Append {expr1} to register {reg-name}. If the register was empty it's like setting it to {expr1}. :let &{option-name} = {expr1} *:let-option* *:let-&* Set option {option-name} to the result of the expression {expr1}. A String or Number value is always converted to the type of the option. For an option local to a window or buffer the effect is just like using the |:set| command: both the local value and the global value are changed. Example: :let &path = &path . ',/usr/local/include' :let &{option-name} .= {expr1} For a string option: Append {expr1} to the value. Does not insert a comma like |:set+=|. :let &{option-name} += {expr1} :let &{option-name} -= {expr1} For a number or boolean option: Add or subtract {expr1}. :let &l:{option-name} = {expr1} :let &l:{option-name} .= {expr1} :let &l:{option-name} += {expr1} :let &l:{option-name} -= {expr1} Like above, but only set the local value of an option (if there is one). Works like |:setlocal|. :let &g:{option-name} = {expr1} :let &g:{option-name} .= {expr1} :let &g:{option-name} += {expr1} :let &g:{option-name} -= {expr1} Like above, but only set the global value of an option (if there is one). Works like |:setglobal|. :let [{name1}, {name2}, ...] = {expr1} *:let-unpack* *E687* *E688* {expr1} must evaluate to a |List|. The first item in the list is assigned to {name1}, the second item to {name2}, etc. The number of names must match the number of items in the |List|. Each name can be one of the items of the ":let" command as mentioned above. Example: :let [s, item] = GetItem(s) Detail: {expr1} is evaluated first, then the assignments are done in sequence. This matters if {name2} depends on {name1}. Example: :let x = [0, 1] :let i = 0 :let [i, x[i]] = [1, 2] :echo x The result is [0, 2]. :let [{name1}, {name2}, ...] .= {expr1} :let [{name1}, {name2}, ...] += {expr1} :let [{name1}, {name2}, ...] -= {expr1} Like above, but append/add/subtract the value for each |List| item. :let [{name}, ..., ; {lastname}] = {expr1} Like |:let-unpack| above, but the |List| may have more items than there are names. A list of the remaining items is assigned to {lastname}. If there are no remaining items {lastname} is set to an empty list. Example: :let [a, b; rest] = ["aval", "bval", 3, 4] :let [{name}, ..., ; {lastname}] .= {expr1} :let [{name}, ..., ; {lastname}] += {expr1} :let [{name}, ..., ; {lastname}] -= {expr1} Like above, but append/add/subtract the value for each |List| item. *E106* :let {var-name} .. List the value of variable {var-name}. Multiple variable names may be given. Special names recognized here: *E738* g: global variables b: local buffer variables w: local window variables t: local tab page variables s: script-local variables l: local function variables v: Vim variables. :let List the values of all variables. The type of the variable is indicated before the value: <nothing> String # Number * Funcref :unl[et][!] {name} ... *:unlet* *:unl* *E108* *E795* Remove the internal variable {name}. Several variable names can be given, they are all removed. The name may also be a |List| or |Dictionary| item. With [!] no error message is given for non-existing variables. One or more items from a |List| can be removed: :unlet list[3] " remove fourth item :unlet list[3:] " remove fourth item to last One item from a |Dictionary| can be removed at a time: :unlet dict['two'] :unlet dict.two This is especially useful to clean up used global variables and script-local variables (these are not deleted when the script ends). Function-local variables are automatically deleted when the function ends. :lockv[ar][!] [depth] {name} ... *:lockvar* *:lockv* Lock the internal variable {name}. Locking means that it can no longer be changed (until it is unlocked). A locked variable can be deleted: :lockvar v :let v = 'asdf' " fails! :unlet v *E741* If you try to change a locked variable you get an error message: "E741: Value of {name} is locked" [depth] is relevant when locking a |List| or |Dictionary|. It specifies how deep the locking goes: 1 Lock the |List| or |Dictionary| itself, cannot add or remove items, but can still change their values. 2 Also lock the values, cannot change the items. If an item is a |List| or |Dictionary|, cannot add or remove items, but can still change the values. 3 Like 2 but for the |List| / |Dictionary| in the |List| / |Dictionary|, one level deeper. The default [depth] is 2, thus when {name} is a |List| or |Dictionary| the values cannot be changed. *E743* For unlimited depth use [!] and omit [depth]. However, there is a maximum depth of 100 to catch loops. Note that when two variables refer to the same |List| and you lock one of them, the |List| will also be locked when used through the other variable. Example: :let l = [0, 1, 2, 3] :let cl = l :lockvar l :let cl[1] = 99 " won't work! You may want to make a copy of a list to avoid this. See |deepcopy()|. :unlo[ckvar][!] [depth] {name} ... *:unlockvar* *:unlo* Unlock the internal variable {name}. Does the opposite of |:lockvar|. :if {expr1} *:if* *:endif* *:en* *E171* *E579* *E580* :en[dif] Execute the commands until the next matching ":else" or ":endif" if {expr1} evaluates to non-zero. From Vim version 4.5 until 5.0, every Ex command in between the ":if" and ":endif" is ignored. These two commands were just to allow for future expansions in a backwards compatible way. Nesting was allowed. Note that any ":else" or ":elseif" was ignored, the "else" part was not executed either. You can use this to remain compatible with older versions: :if version >= 500 : version-5-specific-commands :endif The commands still need to be parsed to find the "endif". Sometimes an older Vim has a problem with a new command. For example, ":silent" is recognized as a ":substitute" command. In that case ":execute" can avoid problems: :if version >= 600 : execute "silent 1,$delete" :endif NOTE: The ":append" and ":insert" commands don't work properly in between ":if" and ":endif". *:else* *:el* *E581* *E583* :el[se] Execute the commands until the next matching ":else" or ":endif" if they previously were not being executed. *:elseif* *:elsei* *E582* *E584* :elsei[f] {expr1} Short for ":else" ":if", with the addition that there is no extra ":endif". :wh[ile] {expr1} *:while* *:endwhile* *:wh* *:endw* *E170* *E585* *E588* *E733* :endw[hile] Repeat the commands between ":while" and ":endwhile", as long as {expr1} evaluates to non-zero. When an error is detected from a command inside the loop, execution continues after the "endwhile". Example: :let lnum = 1 :while lnum <= line("$") :call FixLine(lnum) :let lnum = lnum + 1 :endwhile NOTE: The ":append" and ":insert" commands don't work properly inside a ":while" and ":for" loop. :for {var} in {list} *:for* *E690* *E732* :endfo[r] *:endfo* *:endfor* Repeat the commands between ":for" and ":endfor" for each item in {list}. Variable {var} is set to the value of each item. When an error is detected for a command inside the loop, execution continues after the "endfor". Changing {list} inside the loop affects what items are used. Make a copy if this is unwanted: :for item in copy(mylist) When not making a copy, Vim stores a reference to the next item in the list, before executing the commands with the current item. Thus the current item can be removed without effect. Removing any later item means it will not be found. Thus the following example works (an inefficient way to make a list empty): :for item in mylist :call remove(mylist, 0) :endfor Note that reordering the list (e.g., with sort() or reverse()) may have unexpected effects. Note that the type of each list item should be identical to avoid errors for the type of {var} changing. Unlet the variable at the end of the loop to allow multiple item types. :for [{var1}, {var2}, ...] in {listlist} :endfo[r] Like ":for" above, but each item in {listlist} must be a list, of which each item is assigned to {var1}, {var2}, etc. Example: :for [lnum, col] in [[1, 3], [2, 5], [3, 8]] :echo getline(lnum)[col] :endfor *:continue* *:con* *E586* :con[tinue] When used inside a ":while" or ":for" loop, jumps back to the start of the loop. If it is used after a |:try| inside the loop but before the matching |:finally| (if present), the commands following the ":finally" up to the matching |:endtry| are executed first. This process applies to all nested ":try"s inside the loop. The outermost ":endtry" then jumps back to the start of the loop. *:break* *:brea* *E587* :brea[k] When used inside a ":while" or ":for" loop, skips to the command after the matching ":endwhile" or ":endfor". If it is used after a |:try| inside the loop but before the matching |:finally| (if present), the commands following the ":finally" up to the matching |:endtry| are executed first. This process applies to all nested ":try"s inside the loop. The outermost ":endtry" then jumps to the command after the loop. :try *:try* *:endt* *:endtry* *E600* *E601* *E602* :endt[ry] Change the error handling for the commands between ":try" and ":endtry" including everything being executed across ":source" commands, function calls, or autocommand invocations. When an error or interrupt is detected and there is a |:finally| command following, execution continues after the ":finally". Otherwise, or when the ":endtry" is reached thereafter, the next (dynamically) surrounding ":try" is checked for a corresponding ":finally" etc. Then the script processing is terminated. (Whether a function definition has an "abort" argument does not matter.) Example: :try | edit too much | finally | echo "cleanup" | endtry :echo "impossible" " not reached, script terminated above Moreover, an error or interrupt (dynamically) inside ":try" and ":endtry" is converted to an exception. It can be caught as if it were thrown by a |:throw| command (see |:catch|). In this case, the script processing is not terminated. The value "Vim:Interrupt" is used for an interrupt exception. An error in a Vim command is converted to a value of the form "Vim({command}):{errmsg}", other errors are converted to a value of the form "Vim:{errmsg}". {command} is the full command name, and {errmsg} is the message that is displayed if the error exception is not caught, always beginning with the error number. Examples: :try | sleep 100 | catch /^Vim:Interrupt$/ | endtry :try | edit | catch /^Vim(edit):E\d\+/ | echo "error" | endtry *:cat* *:catch* *E603* *E604* *E605* :cat[ch] /{pattern}/ The following commands until the next ":catch", |:finally|, or |:endtry| that belongs to the same |:try| as the ":catch" are executed when an exception matching {pattern} is being thrown and has not yet been caught by a previous ":catch". Otherwise, these commands are skipped. When {pattern} is omitted all errors are caught. Examples: :catch /^Vim:Interrupt$/ " catch interrupts (CTRL-C) :catch /^Vim\%((\a\+)\)\=:E/ " catch all Vim errors :catch /^Vim\%((\a\+)\)\=:/ " catch errors and interrupts :catch /^Vim(write):/ " catch all errors in :write :catch /^Vim\%((\a\+)\)\=:E123/ " catch error E123 :catch /my-exception/ " catch user exception :catch /.*/ " catch everything :catch " same as /.*/ Another character can be used instead of / around the {pattern}, so long as it does not have a special meaning (e.g., '|' or '"'') and doesn't occur inside {pattern}. NOTE: It is not reliable to ":catch" the TEXT of an error message because it may vary in different locales. *:fina* *:finally* *E606* *E607* :fina[lly] The following commands until the matching |:endtry| are executed whenever the part between the matching |:try| and the ":finally" is left: either by falling through to the ":finally" or by a |:continue|, |:break|, |:finish|, or |:return|, or by an error or interrupt or exception (see |:throw|). *:th* *:throw* *E608* :th[row] {expr1} The {expr1} is evaluated and thrown as an exception. If the ":throw" is used after a |:try| but before the first corresponding |:catch|, commands are skipped until the first ":catch" matching {expr1} is reached. If there is no such ":catch" or if the ":throw" is used after a ":catch" but before the |:finally|, the commands following the ":finally" (if present) up to the matching |:endtry| are executed. If the ":throw" is after the ":finally", commands up to the ":endtry" are skipped. At the ":endtry", this process applies again for the next dynamically surrounding ":try" (which may be found in a calling function or sourcing script), until a matching ":catch" has been found. If the exception is not caught, the command processing is terminated. Example: :try | throw "oops" | catch /^oo/ | echo "caught" | endtry *:ec* *:echo* :ec[ho] {expr1} .. Echoes each {expr1}, with a space in between. The first {expr1} starts on a new line. Also see |:comment|. Use "\n" to start a new line. Use "\r" to move the cursor to the first column. Uses the highlighting set by the |:echohl| command. Cannot be followed by a comment. Example: :echo "the value of 'shell' is" &shell *:echo-redraw* A later redraw may make the message disappear again. And since Vim mostly postpones redrawing until it's finished with a sequence of commands this happens quite often. To avoid that a command from before the ":echo" causes a redraw afterwards (redraws are often postponed until you type something), force a redraw with the |:redraw| command. Example: :new | redraw | echo "there is a new window" *:echon* :echon {expr1} .. Echoes each {expr1}, without anything added. Also see |:comment|. Uses the highlighting set by the |:echohl| command. Cannot be followed by a comment. Example: :echon "the value of 'shell' is " &shell Note the difference between using ":echo", which is a Vim command, and ":!echo", which is an external shell command: :!echo % --> filename The arguments of ":!" are expanded, see |:_%|. :!echo "%" --> filename or "filename" Like the previous example. Whether you see the double quotes or not depends on your 'shell'. :echo % --> nothing The '%' is an illegal character in an expression. :echo "%" --> % This just echoes the '%' character. :echo expand("%") --> filename This calls the expand() function to expand the '%'. *:echoh* *:echohl* :echoh[l] {name} Use the highlight group {name} for the following |:echo|, |:echon| and |:echomsg| commands. Also used for the |input()| prompt. Example: :echohl WarningMsg | echo "Don't panic!" | echohl None Don't forget to set the group back to "None", otherwise all following echo's will be highlighted. *:echom* *:echomsg* :echom[sg] {expr1} .. Echo the expression(s) as a true message, saving the message in the |message-history|. Spaces are placed between the arguments as with the |:echo| command. But unprintable characters are displayed, not interpreted. The parsing works slightly different from |:echo|, more like |:execute|. All the expressions are first evaluated and concatenated before echoing anything. The expressions must evaluate to a Number or String, a Dictionary or List causes an error. Uses the highlighting set by the |:echohl| command. Example: :echomsg "It's a Zizzer Zazzer Zuzz, as you can plainly see." See |:echo-redraw| to avoid the message disappearing when the screen is redrawn. *:echoe* *:echoerr* :echoe[rr] {expr1} .. Echo the expression(s) as an error message, saving the message in the |message-history|. When used in a script or function the line number will be added. Spaces are placed between the arguments as with the :echo command. When used inside a try conditional, the message is raised as an error exception instead (see |try-echoerr|). Example: :echoerr "This script just failed!" If you just want a highlighted message use |:echohl|. And to get a beep: :exe "normal \<Esc>" *:exe* *:execute* :exe[cute] {expr1} .. Executes the string that results from the evaluation of {expr1} as an Ex command. Multiple arguments are concatenated, with a space in between. {expr1} is used as the processed command, command line editing keys are not recognized. Cannot be followed by a comment. Examples: :execute "buffer " nextbuf :execute "normal " count . "w" ":execute" can be used to append a command to commands that don't accept a '|'. Example: :execute '!ls' | echo "theend" ":execute" is also a nice way to avoid having to type control characters in a Vim script for a ":normal" command: :execute "normal ixxx\<Esc>" This has an <Esc> character, see |expr-string|. Be careful to correctly escape special characters in file names. The |fnameescape()| function can be used for Vim commands, |shellescape()| for |:!| commands. Examples: :execute "e " . fnameescape(filename) :execute "!ls " . shellescape(expand('%:h'), 1) Note: The executed string may be any command-line, but you cannot start or end a "while", "for" or "if" command. Thus this is illegal: :execute 'while i > 5' :execute 'echo "test" | break' It is allowed to have a "while" or "if" command completely in the executed string: :execute 'while i < 5 | echo i | let i = i + 1 | endwhile' *:comment* ":execute", ":echo" and ":echon" cannot be followed by a comment directly, because they see the '"'' as the start of a string. But, you can use '|' followed by a comment. Example: :echo "foo" | "this is a comment
8. Exception handling *exception-handling* The Vim script language comprises an exception handling feature. This section explains how it can be used in a Vim script. Exceptions may be raised by Vim on an error or on interrupt, see |catch-errors| and |catch-interrupt|. You can also explicitly throw an exception by using the ":throw" command, see |throw-catch|. TRY CONDITIONALS *try-conditionals* Exceptions can be caught or can cause cleanup code to be executed. You can use a try conditional to specify catch clauses (that catch exceptions) and/or a finally clause (to be executed for cleanup). A try conditional begins with a |:try| command and ends at the matching |:endtry| command. In between, you can use a |:catch| command to start a catch clause, or a |:finally| command to start a finally clause. There may be none or multiple catch clauses, but there is at most one finally clause, which must not be followed by any catch clauses. The lines before the catch clauses and the finally clause is called a try block. :try : ... : ... TRY BLOCK : ... :catch /{pattern}/ : ... : ... CATCH CLAUSE : ... :catch /{pattern}/ : ... : ... CATCH CLAUSE : ... :finally : ... : ... FINALLY CLAUSE : ... :endtry The try conditional allows to watch code for exceptions and to take the appropriate actions. Exceptions from the try block may be caught. Exceptions from the try block and also the catch clauses may cause cleanup actions. When no exception is thrown during execution of the try block, the control is transferred to the finally clause, if present. After its execution, the script continues with the line following the ":endtry". When an exception occurs during execution of the try block, the remaining lines in the try block are skipped. The exception is matched against the patterns specified as arguments to the ":catch" commands. The catch clause after the first matching ":catch" is taken, other catch clauses are not executed. The catch clause ends when the next ":catch", ":finally", or ":endtry" command is reached - whatever is first. Then, the finally clause (if present) is executed. When the ":endtry" is reached, the script execution continues in the following line as usual. When an exception that does not match any of the patterns specified by the ":catch" commands is thrown in the try block, the exception is not caught by that try conditional and none of the catch clauses is executed. Only the finally clause, if present, is taken. The exception pends during execution of the finally clause. It is resumed at the ":endtry", so that commands after the ":endtry" are not executed and the exception might be caught elsewhere, see |try-nesting|. When during execution of a catch clause another exception is thrown, the remaining lines in that catch clause are not executed. The new exception is not matched against the patterns in any of the ":catch" commands of the same try conditional and none of its catch clauses is taken. If there is, however, a finally clause, it is executed, and the exception pends during its execution. The commands following the ":endtry" are not executed. The new exception might, however, be caught elsewhere, see |try-nesting|. When during execution of the finally clause (if present) an exception is thrown, the remaining lines in the finally clause are skipped. If the finally clause has been taken because of an exception from the try block or one of the catch clauses, the original (pending) exception is discarded. The commands following the ":endtry" are not executed, and the exception from the finally clause is propagated and can be caught elsewhere, see |try-nesting|. The finally clause is also executed, when a ":break" or ":continue" for a ":while" loop enclosing the complete try conditional is executed from the try block or a catch clause. Or when a ":return" or ":finish" is executed from the try block or a catch clause of a try conditional in a function or sourced script, respectively. The ":break", ":continue", ":return", or ":finish" pends during execution of the finally clause and is resumed when the ":endtry" is reached. It is, however, discarded when an exception is thrown from the finally clause. When a ":break" or ":continue" for a ":while" loop enclosing the complete try conditional or when a ":return" or ":finish" is encountered in the finally clause, the rest of the finally clause is skipped, and the ":break", ":continue", ":return" or ":finish" is executed as usual. If the finally clause has been taken because of an exception or an earlier ":break", ":continue", ":return", or ":finish" from the try block or a catch clause, this pending exception or command is discarded. For examples see |throw-catch| and |try-finally|. NESTING OF TRY CONDITIONALS *try-nesting* Try conditionals can be nested arbitrarily. That is, a complete try conditional can be put into the try block, a catch clause, or the finally clause of another try conditional. If the inner try conditional does not catch an exception thrown in its try block or throws a new exception from one of its catch clauses or its finally clause, the outer try conditional is checked according to the rules above. If the inner try conditional is in the try block of the outer try conditional, its catch clauses are checked, but otherwise only the finally clause is executed. It does not matter for nesting, whether the inner try conditional is directly contained in the outer one, or whether the outer one sources a script or calls a function containing the inner try conditional. When none of the active try conditionals catches an exception, just their finally clauses are executed. Thereafter, the script processing terminates. An error message is displayed in case of an uncaught exception explicitly thrown by a ":throw" command. For uncaught error and interrupt exceptions implicitly raised by Vim, the error message(s) or interrupt message are shown as usual. For examples see |throw-catch|. EXAMINING EXCEPTION HANDLING CODE *except-examine* Exception handling code can get tricky. If you are in doubt what happens, set 'verbose' to 13 or use the ":13verbose" command modifier when sourcing your script file. Then you see when an exception is thrown, discarded, caught, or finished. When using a verbosity level of at least 14, things pending in a finally clause are also shown. This information is also given in debug mode (see |debug-scripts|). THROWING AND CATCHING EXCEPTIONS *throw-catch* You can throw any number or string as an exception. Use the |:throw| command and pass the value to be thrown as argument: :throw 4711 :throw "string" *throw-expression* You can also specify an expression argument. The expression is then evaluated first, and the result is thrown: :throw 4705 + strlen("string") :throw strpart("strings", 0, 6) An exception might be thrown during evaluation of the argument of the ":throw" command. Unless it is caught there, the expression evaluation is abandoned. The ":throw" command then does not throw a new exception. Example: :function! Foo(arg) : try : throw a:arg : catch /foo/ : endtry : return 1 :endfunction : :function! Bar() : echo "in Bar" : return 4710 :endfunction : :throw Foo("arrgh") + Bar() This throws "arrgh", and "in Bar" is not displayed since Bar() is not executed. :throw Foo("foo") + Bar() however displays "in Bar" and throws 4711. Any other command that takes an expression as argument might also be abandoned by an (uncaught) exception during the expression evaluation. The exception is then propagated to the caller of the command. Example: :if Foo("arrgh") : echo "then" :else : echo "else" :endif Here neither of "then" or "else" is displayed. *catch-order* Exceptions can be caught by a try conditional with one or more |:catch| commands, see |try-conditionals|. The values to be caught by each ":catch" command can be specified as a pattern argument. The subsequent catch clause gets executed when a matching exception is caught. Example: :function! Foo(value) : try : throw a:value : catch /^\d\+$/ : echo "Number thrown" : catch /.*/ : echo "String thrown" : endtry :endfunction : :call Foo(0x1267) :call Foo('string') The first call to Foo() displays "Number thrown", the second "String thrown". An exception is matched against the ":catch" commands in the order they are specified. Only the first match counts. So you should place the more specific ":catch" first. The following order does not make sense: : catch /.*/ : echo "String thrown" : catch /^\d\+$/ : echo "Number thrown" The first ":catch" here matches always, so that the second catch clause is never taken. *throw-variables* If you catch an exception by a general pattern, you may access the exact value in the variable YXXYv:exception|: : catch /^\d\+$/ : echo "Number thrown. Value is" v:exception You may also be interested where an exception was thrown. This is stored in |v:throwpoint|. Note that "v:exception" and "v:throwpoint" are valid for the exception most recently caught as long it is not finished. Example: :function! Caught() : if v:exception != "" : echo 'Caught "' . v:exception . '" in ' . v:throwpoint : else : echo 'Nothing caught' : endif :endfunction : :function! Foo() : try : try : try : throw 4711 : finally : call Caught() : endtry : catch /.*/ : call Caught() : throw "oops" : endtry : catch /.*/ : call Caught() : finally : call Caught() : endtry :endfunction : :call Foo() This displays Nothing caught Caught "4711" in function Foo, line 4 Caught "oops" in function Foo, line 10 Nothing caught A practical example: The following command ":LineNumber" displays the line number in the script or function where it has been used: :function! LineNumber() : return substitute(v:throwpoint, '.*\D\(\d\+\).*', '\1', "") :endfunction :command! LineNumber try | throw "" | catch | echo LineNumber() | endtry *try-nested* An exception that is not caught by a try conditional can be caught by a surrounding try conditional: :try : try : throw "foo" : catch /foobar/ : echo "foobar" : finally : echo "inner finally" : endtry :catch /foo/ : echo "foo" :endtry The inner try conditional does not catch the exception, just its finally clause is executed. The exception is then caught by the outer try conditional. The example displays "inner finally" and then "foo". *throw-from-catch* You can catch an exception and throw a new one to be caught elsewhere from the catch clause: :function! Foo() : throw "foo" :endfunction : :function! Bar() : try : call Foo() : catch /foo/ : echo "Caught foo, throw bar" : throw "bar" : endtry :endfunction : :try : call Bar() :catch /.*/ : echo "Caught" v:exception :endtry This displays "Caught foo, throw bar" and then "Caught bar". *rethrow* There is no real rethrow in the Vim script language, but you may throw "v:exception" instead: :function! Bar() : try : call Foo() : catch /.*/ : echo "Rethrow" v:exception : throw v:exception : endtry :endfunction *try-echoerr* Note that this method cannot be used to "rethrow" Vim error or interrupt exceptions, because it is not possible to fake Vim internal exceptions. Trying so causes an error exception. You should throw your own exception denoting the situation. If you want to cause a Vim error exception containing the original error exception value, you can use the |:echoerr| command: :try : try : asdf : catch /.*/ : echoerr v:exception : endtry :catch /.*/ : echo v:exception :endtry This code displays Vim(echoerr):Vim:E492: Not an editor command: asdf CLEANUP CODE *try-finally* Scripts often change global settings and restore them at their end. If the user however interrupts the script by pressing CTRL-C, the settings remain in an inconsistent state. The same may happen to you in the development phase of a script when an error occurs or you explicitly throw an exception without catching it. You can solve these problems by using a try conditional with a finally clause for restoring the settings. Its execution is guaranteed on normal control flow, on error, on an explicit ":throw", and on interrupt. (Note that errors and interrupts from inside the try conditional are converted to exceptions. When not caught, they terminate the script after the finally clause has been executed.) Example: :try : let s:saved_ts = &ts : set ts=17 : : " Do the hard work here. : :finally : let &ts = s:saved_ts : unlet s:saved_ts :endtry This method should be used locally whenever a function or part of a script changes global settings which need to be restored on failure or normal exit of that function or script part. *break-finally* Cleanup code works also when the try block or a catch clause is left by a ":continue", ":break", ":return", or ":finish". Example: :let first = 1 :while 1 : try : if first : echo "first" : let first = 0 : continue : else : throw "second" : endif : catch /.*/ : echo v:exception : break : finally : echo "cleanup" : endtry : echo "still in while" :endwhile :echo "end" This displays "first", "cleanup", "second", "cleanup", and "end". :function! Foo() : try : return 4711 : finally : echo "cleanup\n" : endtry : echo "Foo still active" :endfunction : :echo Foo() "returned by Foo" This displays "cleanup" and "4711 returned by Foo". You don't need to add an extra ":return" in the finally clause. (Above all, this would override the return value.) *except-from-finally* Using either of ":continue", ":break", ":return", ":finish", or ":throw" in a finally clause is possible, but not recommended since it abandons the cleanup actions for the try conditional. But, of course, interrupt and error exceptions might get raised from a finally clause. Example where an error in the finally clause stops an interrupt from working correctly: :try : try : echo "Press CTRL-C for interrupt" : while 1 : endwhile : finally : unlet novar : endtry :catch /novar/ :endtry :echo "Script still running" :sleep 1 If you need to put commands that could fail into a finally clause, you should think about catching or ignoring the errors in these commands, see |catch-errors| and |ignore-errors|. CATCHING ERRORS *catch-errors* If you want to catch specific errors, you just have to put the code to be watched in a try block and add a catch clause for the error message. The presence of the try conditional causes all errors to be converted to an exception. No message is displayed and |v:errmsg| is not set then. To find the right pattern for the ":catch" command, you have to know how the format of the error exception is. Error exceptions have the following format: Vim({cmdname}):{errmsg} or Vim:{errmsg} {cmdname} is the name of the command that failed; the second form is used when the command name is not known. {errmsg} is the error message usually produced when the error occurs outside try conditionals. It always begins with a capital "E", followed by a two or three-digit error number, a colon, and a space. Examples: The command :unlet novar normally produces the error message E108: No such variable: "novar" which is converted inside try conditionals to an exception Vim(unlet):E108: No such variable: "novar" The command :dwim normally produces the error message E492: Not an editor command: dwim which is converted inside try conditionals to an exception Vim:E492: Not an editor command: dwim You can catch all ":unlet" errors by a :catch /^Vim(unlet):/ or all errors for misspelled command names by a :catch /^Vim:E492:/ Some error messages may be produced by different commands: :function nofunc and :delfunction nofunc both produce the error message E128: Function name must start with a capital: nofunc which is converted inside try conditionals to an exception Vim(function):E128: Function name must start with a capital: nofunc or Vim(delfunction):E128: Function name must start with a capital: nofunc respectively. You can catch the error by its number independently on the command that caused it if you use the following pattern: :catch /^Vim(\a\+):E128:/ Some commands like :let x = novar produce multiple error messages, here: E121: Undefined variable: novar E15: Invalid expression: novar Only the first is used for the exception value, since it is the most specific one (see |except-several-errors|). So you can catch it by :catch /^Vim(\a\+):E121:/ You can catch all errors related to the name "nofunc" by :catch /\<nofunc\>/ You can catch all Vim errors in the ":write" and ":read" commands by :catch /^Vim(\(write\|read\)):E\d\+:/ You can catch all Vim errors by the pattern :catch /^Vim\((\a\+)\)\=:E\d\+:/ *catch-text* NOTE: You should never catch the error message text itself: :catch /No such variable/ only works in the english locale, but not when the user has selected a different language by the |:language| command. It is however helpful to cite the message text in a comment: :catch /^Vim(\a\+):E108:/ " No such variable IGNORING ERRORS *ignore-errors* You can ignore errors in a specific Vim command by catching them locally: :try : write :catch :endtry But you are strongly recommended NOT to use this simple form, since it could catch more than you want. With the ":write" command, some autocommands could be executed and cause errors not related to writing, for instance: :au BufWritePre * unlet novar There could even be such errors you are not responsible for as a script writer: a user of your script might have defined such autocommands. You would then hide the error from the user. It is much better to use :try : write :catch /^Vim(write):/ :endtry which only catches real write errors. So catch only what you'd like to ignore intentionally. For a single command that does not cause execution of autocommands, you could even suppress the conversion of errors to exceptions by the ":silent!" command: :silent! nunmap k This works also when a try conditional is active. CATCHING INTERRUPTS *catch-interrupt* When there are active try conditionals, an interrupt (CTRL-C) is converted to the exception "Vim:Interrupt". You can catch it like every exception. The script is not terminated, then. Example: :function! TASK1() : sleep 10 :endfunction :function! TASK2() : sleep 20 :endfunction :while 1 : let command = input("Type a command: ") : try : if command == "" : continue : elseif command == "END" : break : elseif command == "TASK1" : call TASK1() : elseif command == "TASK2" : call TASK2() : else : echo "\nIllegal command:" command : continue : endif : catch /^Vim:Interrupt$/ : echo "\nCommand interrupted" : " Caught the interrupt. Continue with next prompt. : endtry :endwhile You can interrupt a task here by pressing CTRL-C; the script then asks for a new command. If you press CTRL-C at the prompt, the script is terminated. For testing what happens when CTRL-C would be pressed on a specific line in your script, use the debug mode and execute the |>quit| or |>interrupt| command on that line. See |debug-scripts|. CATCHING ALL *catch-all* The commands :catch /.*/ :catch // :catch catch everything, error exceptions, interrupt exceptions and exceptions explicitly thrown by the |:throw| command. This is useful at the top level of a script in order to catch unexpected things. Example: :try : : " do the hard work here : :catch /MyException/ : : " handle known problem : :catch /^Vim:Interrupt$/ : echo "Script interrupted" :catch /.*/ : echo "Internal error (" . v:exception . ")" : echo " - occurred at " . v:throwpoint :endtry :" end of script Note: Catching all might catch more things than you want. Thus, you are strongly encouraged to catch only for problems that you can really handle by specifying a pattern argument to the ":catch". Example: Catching all could make it nearly impossible to interrupt a script by pressing CTRL-C: :while 1 : try : sleep 1 : catch : endtry :endwhile EXCEPTIONS AND AUTOCOMMANDS *except-autocmd* Exceptions may be used during execution of autocommands. Example: :autocmd User x try :autocmd User x throw "Oops!" :autocmd User x catch :autocmd User x echo v:exception :autocmd User x endtry :autocmd User x throw "Arrgh!" :autocmd User x echo "Should not be displayed" : :try : doautocmd User x :catch : echo v:exception :endtry This displays "Oops!" and "Arrgh!". *except-autocmd-Pre* For some commands, autocommands get executed before the main action of the command takes place. If an exception is thrown and not caught in the sequence of autocommands, the sequence and the command that caused its execution are abandoned and the exception is propagated to the caller of the command. Example: :autocmd BufWritePre * throw "FAIL" :autocmd BufWritePre * echo "Should not be displayed" : :try : write :catch : echo "Caught:" v:exception "from" v:throwpoint :endtry Here, the ":write" command does not write the file currently being edited (as you can see by checking 'modified'), since the exception from the BufWritePre autocommand abandons the ":write". The exception is then caught and the script displays: Caught: FAIL from BufWrite Auto commands for "*" *except-autocmd-Post* For some commands, autocommands get executed after the main action of the command has taken place. If this main action fails and the command is inside an active try conditional, the autocommands are skipped and an error exception is thrown that can be caught by the caller of the command. Example: :autocmd BufWritePost * echo "File successfully written!" : :try : write /i/m/p/o/s/s/i/b/l/e :catch : echo v:exception :endtry This just displays: Vim(write):E212: Can't open file for writing (/i/m/p/o/s/s/i/b/l/e) If you really need to execute the autocommands even when the main action fails, trigger the event from the catch clause. Example: :autocmd BufWritePre * set noreadonly :autocmd BufWritePost * set readonly : :try : write /i/m/p/o/s/s/i/b/l/e :catch : doautocmd BufWritePost /i/m/p/o/s/s/i/b/l/e :endtry You can also use ":silent!": :let x = "ok" :let v:errmsg = "" :autocmd BufWritePost * if v:errmsg != "" :autocmd BufWritePost * let x = "after fail" :autocmd BufWritePost * endif :try : silent! write /i/m/p/o/s/s/i/b/l/e :catch :endtry :echo x This displays "after fail". If the main action of the command does not fail, exceptions from the autocommands will be catchable by the caller of the command: :autocmd BufWritePost * throw ":-(" :autocmd BufWritePost * echo "Should not be displayed" : :try : write :catch : echo v:exception :endtry *except-autocmd-Cmd* For some commands, the normal action can be replaced by a sequence of autocommands. Exceptions from that sequence will be catchable by the caller of the command. Example: For the ":write" command, the caller cannot know whether the file had actually been written when the exception occurred. You need to tell it in some way. :if !exists("cnt") : let cnt = 0 : : autocmd BufWriteCmd * if &modified : autocmd BufWriteCmd * let cnt = cnt + 1 : autocmd BufWriteCmd * if cnt % 3 == 2 : autocmd BufWriteCmd * throw "BufWriteCmdError" : autocmd BufWriteCmd * endif : autocmd BufWriteCmd * write | set nomodified : autocmd BufWriteCmd * if cnt % 3 == 0 : autocmd BufWriteCmd * throw "BufWriteCmdError" : autocmd BufWriteCmd * endif : autocmd BufWriteCmd * echo "File successfully written!" : autocmd BufWriteCmd * endif :endif : :try : write :catch /^BufWriteCmdError$/ : if &modified : echo "Error on writing (file contents not changed)" : else : echo "Error after writing" : endif :catch /^Vim(write):/ : echo "Error on writing" :endtry When this script is sourced several times after making changes, it displays first File successfully written! then Error on writing (file contents not changed) then Error after writing etc. *except-autocmd-ill* You cannot spread a try conditional over autocommands for different events. The following code is ill-formed: :autocmd BufWritePre * try : :autocmd BufWritePost * catch :autocmd BufWritePost * echo v:exception :autocmd BufWritePost * endtry : :write EXCEPTION HIERARCHIES AND PARAMETERIZED EXCEPTIONS *except-hier-param* Some programming languages allow to use hierarchies of exception classes or to pass additional information with the object of an exception class. You can do similar things in Vim. In order to throw an exception from a hierarchy, just throw the complete class name with the components separated by a colon, for instance throw the string "EXCEPT:MATHERR:OVERFLOW" for an overflow in a mathematical library. When you want to pass additional information with your exception class, add it in parentheses, for instance throw the string "EXCEPT:IO:WRITEERR(myfile)" for an error when writing "myfile". With the appropriate patterns in the ":catch" command, you can catch for base classes or derived classes of your hierarchy. Additional information in parentheses can be cut out from |v:exception| with the ":substitute" command. Example: :function! CheckRange(a, func) : if a:a < 0 : throw "EXCEPT:MATHERR:RANGE(" . a:func . ")" : endif :endfunction : :function! Add(a, b) : call CheckRange(a:a, "Add") : call CheckRange(a:b, "Add") : let c = a:a + a:b : if c < 0 : throw "EXCEPT:MATHERR:OVERFLOW" : endif : return c :endfunction : :function! Div(a, b) : call CheckRange(a:a, "Div") : call CheckRange(a:b, "Div") : if (a:b == 0) : throw "EXCEPT:MATHERR:ZERODIV" : endif : return a:a / a:b :endfunction : :function! Write(file) : try : execute "write" fnameescape(a:file) : catch /^Vim(write):/ : throw "EXCEPT:IO(" . getcwd() . ", " . a:file . "):WRITEERR" : endtry :endfunction : :try : : " something with arithmetics and I/O : :catch /^EXCEPT:MATHERR:RANGE/ : let function = substitute(v:exception, '.*(\(\a\+\)).*', '\1', "") : echo "Range error in" function : :catch /^EXCEPT:MATHERR/ " catches OVERFLOW and ZERODIV : echo "Math error" : :catch /^EXCEPT:IO/ : let dir = substitute(v:exception, '.*(\(.\+\),\s*.\+).*', '\1', "") : let file = substitute(v:exception, '.*(.\+,\s*\(.\+\)).*', '\1', "") : if file !~ '^/' : let file = dir . "/" . file : endif : echo 'I/O error for "' . file . '"' : :catch /^EXCEPT/ : echo "Unspecified error" : :endtry The exceptions raised by Vim itself (on error or when pressing CTRL-C) use a flat hierarchy: they are all in the "Vim" class. You cannot throw yourself exceptions with the "Vim" prefix; they are reserved for Vim. Vim error exceptions are parameterized with the name of the command that failed, if known. See |catch-errors|. PECULIARITIES *except-compat* The exception handling concept requires that the command sequence causing the exception is aborted immediately and control is transferred to finally clauses and/or a catch clause. In the Vim script language there are cases where scripts and functions continue after an error: in functions without the "abort" flag or in a command after ":silent!", control flow goes to the following line, and outside functions, control flow goes to the line following the outermost ":endwhile" or ":endif". On the other hand, errors should be catchable as exceptions (thus, requiring the immediate abortion). This problem has been solved by converting errors to exceptions and using immediate abortion (if not suppressed by ":silent!") only when a try conditional is active. This is no restriction since an (error) exception can be caught only from an active try conditional. If you want an immediate termination without catching the error, just use a try conditional without catch clause. (You can cause cleanup code being executed before termination by specifying a finally clause.) When no try conditional is active, the usual abortion and continuation behavior is used instead of immediate abortion. This ensures compatibility of scripts written for Vim 6.1 and earlier. However, when sourcing an existing script that does not use exception handling commands (or when calling one of its functions) from inside an active try conditional of a new script, you might change the control flow of the existing script on error. You get the immediate abortion on error and can catch the error in the new script. If however the sourced script suppresses error messages by using the ":silent!" command (checking for errors by testing |v:errmsg| if appropriate), its execution path is not changed. The error is not converted to an exception. (See |:silent|.) So the only remaining cause where this happens is for scripts that don't care about errors and produce error messages. You probably won't want to use such code from your new scripts. *except-syntax-err* Syntax errors in the exception handling commands are never caught by any of the ":catch" commands of the try conditional they belong to. Its finally clauses, however, is executed. Example: :try : try : throw 4711 : catch /\(/ : echo "in catch with syntax error" : catch : echo "inner catch-all" : finally : echo "inner finally" : endtry :catch : echo 'outer catch-all caught "' . v:exception . '"' : finally : echo "outer finally" :endtry This displays: inner finally outer catch-all caught "Vim(catch):E54: Unmatched \(" outer finally The original exception is discarded and an error exception is raised, instead. *except-single-line* The ":try", ":catch", ":finally", and ":endtry" commands can be put on a single line, but then syntax errors may make it difficult to recognize the "catch" line, thus you better avoid this. Example: :try | unlet! foo # | catch | endtry raises an error exception for the trailing characters after the ":unlet!" argument, but does not see the ":catch" and ":endtry" commands, so that the error exception is discarded and the "E488: Trailing characters" message gets displayed. *except-several-errors* When several errors appear in a single command, the first error message is usually the most specific one and therefor converted to the error exception. Example: echo novar causes E121: Undefined variable: novar E15: Invalid expression: novar The value of the error exception inside try conditionals is: Vim(echo):E121: Undefined variable: novar *except-syntax-error* But when a syntax error is detected after a normal error in the same command, the syntax error is used for the exception being thrown. Example: unlet novar # causes E108: No such variable: "novar" E488: Trailing characters The value of the error exception inside try conditionals is: Vim(unlet):E488: Trailing characters This is done because the syntax error might change the execution path in a way not intended by the user. Example: try try | unlet novar # | catch | echo v:exception | endtry catch /.*/ echo "outer catch:" v:exception endtry This displays "outer catch: Vim(unlet):E488: Trailing characters", and then a "E600: Missing :endtry" error message is given, see |except-single-line|.
9. Examples *eval-examples* Printing in Binary :" The function Nr2Bin() returns the Hex string of a number. :func Nr2Bin(nr) : let n = a:nr : let r = "" : while n : let r = '01'[n % 2] . r : let n = n / 2 : endwhile : return r :endfunc :" The function String2Bin() converts each character in a string to a :" binary string, separated with dashes. :func String2Bin(str) : let out = '' : for ix in range(strlen(a:str)) : let out = out . '-' . Nr2Bin(char2nr(a:str[ix])) : endfor : return out[1:] :endfunc Example of its use: :echo Nr2Bin(32) result: "100000" :echo String2Bin("32") result: "110011-110010" Sorting lines This example sorts lines with a specific compare function. :func SortBuffer() : let lines = getline(1, '$') : call sort(lines, function("Strcmp")) : call setline(1, lines) :endfunction As a one-liner: :call setline(1, sort(getline(1, '$'), function("Strcmp"))) scanf() replacement *sscanf* There is no sscanf() function in Vim. If you need to extract parts from a line, you can use matchstr() and substitute() to do it. This example shows how to get the file name, line number and column number out of a line like "foobar.txt, 123, 45". :" Set up the match bit :let mx='\(\f\+\),\s*\(\d\+\),\s*\(\d\+\)' :"get the part matching the whole expression :let l = matchstr(line, mx) :"get each item out of the match :let file = substitute(l, mx, '\1', '') :let lnum = substitute(l, mx, '\2', '') :let col = substitute(l, mx, '\3', '') The input is in the variable "line", the results in the variables "file", "lnum" and "col". (idea from Michael Geddes) getting the scriptnames in a Dictionary *scriptnames-dictionary* The |:scriptnames| command can be used to get a list of all script files that have been sourced. There is no equivalent function or variable for this (because it's rarely needed). In case you need to manipulate the list this code can be used: " Get the output of ":scriptnames" in the scriptnames_output variable. let scriptnames_output = '' redir => scriptnames_output silent scriptnames redir END " Split the output into lines and parse each line. Add an entry to the " "scripts" dictionary. let scripts = {} for line in split(scriptnames_output, "\n") " Only do non-blank lines. if line =~ '\S' " Get the first number in the line. let nr = matchstr(line, '\d\+') " Get the file name, remove the script number " 123: ". let name = substitute(line, '.\+:\s*', '', '') " Add an item to the Dictionary let scripts[nr] = name endif endfor unlet scriptnames_output
10. No +eval feature *no-eval-feature* When the |+eval| feature was disabled at compile time, none of the expression evaluation commands are available. To prevent this from causing Vim scripts to generate all kinds of errors, the ":if" and ":endif" commands are still recognized, though the argument of the ":if" and everything between the ":if" and the matching ":endif" is ignored. Nesting of ":if" blocks is allowed, but only if the commands are at the start of the line. The ":else" command is not recognized. Example of how to avoid executing commands when the |+eval| feature is missing: :if 1 : echo "Expression evaluation is compiled in" :else : echo "You will _never_ see this message" :endif
11. The sandbox *eval-sandbox* *sandbox* *E48* The 'foldexpr', 'includeexpr', 'indentexpr', 'statusline' and 'foldtext' options are evaluated in a sandbox. This means that you are protected from these expressions having nasty side effects. This gives some safety for when these options are set from a modeline. It is also used when the command from a tags file is executed and for CTRL-R = in the command line. The sandbox is also used for the |:sandbox| command. These items are not allowed in the sandbox: - changing the buffer text - defining or changing mapping, autocommands, functions, user commands - setting certain options (see |option-summary|) - setting certain v: variables (see |v:var|) *E794* - executing a shell command - reading or writing a file - jumping to another buffer or editing a file - executing Python, Perl, etc. commands This is not guaranteed 100% secure, but it should block most attacks. *:san* *:sandbox* :san[dbox] {cmd} Execute {cmd} in the sandbox. Useful to evaluate an option that may have been set from a modeline, e.g. 'foldexpr'. *sandbox-option* A few options contain an expression. When this expression is evaluated it may have to be done in the sandbox to avoid a security risk. But the sandbox is restrictive, thus this only happens when the option was set from an insecure location. Insecure in this context are: - sourcing a .vimrc or .exrc in the current directory - while executing in the sandbox - value coming from a modeline Note that when in the sandbox and saving an option value and restoring it, the option will still be marked as it was set in the sandbox.
12. Textlock *textlock* In a few situations it is not allowed to change the text in the buffer, jump to another window and some other things that might confuse or break what Vim is currently doing. This mostly applies to things that happen when Vim is actually doing something else. For example, evaluating the 'balloonexpr' may happen any moment the mouse cursor is resting at some position. This is not allowed when the textlock is active: - changing the buffer text - jumping to another buffer or window - editing another file - closing a window or quitting Vim - etc. top - main help file